Disaster recovery plan

Disaster recovery plan nursing research paper

Develop a disaster recovery plan to lessen health disparities and improve access to community services after a disaster. Then, develop and record a 10-12 slide presentation (please refer to the PowerPoint tutorial) of the plan with audio and speaker notes for the Vila Health system, city officials, and the disaster relief team.

As you begin to prepare this assessment, you are encouraged to complete the Disaster Preparedness and Management activity. The information gained from completing this activity will help you succeed with the assessment as you think through key issues in disaster preparedness and management in the community or workplace. Completing activities is also a way to demonstrate engagement.

Top most writing agency for nursing and other health science papers for academic and project writing.

Disaster recovery plan nursing research paper


Nurses perform a variety of roles and their responsibilities as health care providers extend to the community. The decisions we make daily and in times of crisis often involve the balancing of human rights with medical necessities, equitable access to services, legal and ethical mandates, and financial constraints. In the event of a major accident or natural disaster, many issues can complicate decisions concerning the needs of an individual or group, including understanding and upholding rights and desires, mediating conflict, and applying established ethical and legal standards of nursing care. As a nurse, you must be knowledgeable about disaster preparedness and recovery to safeguard those in your care. As an advocate, you are also accountable for promoting equitable services and quality care for the diverse community.

Nurses work alongside first responders, other professionals, volunteers, and the health department to safeguard the community. Some concerns during a disaster and recovery period include the possibility of death and infectious disease due to debris and/or contamination of the water, air, food supply, or environment. Various degrees of injury may also occur during disasters, terrorism, and violent conflicts.

To maximize survival, first responders must use a triage system to assign victims according to the severity of their condition/prognosis in order to allocate equitable resources and provide treatment. During infectious disease outbreaks, triage does not take the place of routine clinical triage.

Trace-mapping becomes an important step to interrupting the spread of all infectious diseases to prevent or curtail morbidity and mortality in the community. A vital step in trace-mapping is the identification of the infectious individual or group and isolating or quarantining them. During the trace-mapping process, these individuals are interviewed to identify those who have had close contact with them. Contacts are notified of their potential exposure, testing referrals become paramount, and individuals are connected with appropriate services they might need during the self-quarantine period (CDC, 2020).

An example of such disaster is the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. People who had contact with someone who were in contact with the COVID-19 virus were encouraged to stay home and maintain social distance (at least 6 feet) from others until 14 days after their last exposure to a person with COVID-19. Contacts were required to monitor themselves by checking their temperature twice daily and watching for symptoms of COVID-19 (CDC, 2020). Local, state, and health department guidelines were essential in establishing the recovery phase. Triage Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) in the case of COVID-19 focused on inpatient and outpatient health care facilities that would be receiving, or preparing to receive, suspected, or confirmed COVID- 19 victims. Controlling droplet transmission through hand washing, social distancing, self-quarantine, PPE, installing barriers, education, and standardized triage algorithm/questionnaires became essential to the triage system (CDC, 2020; WHO, 2020).

This assessment provides an opportunity for you to apply the concepts of emergency preparedness, public health assessment, triage, management, and surveillance after a disaster. You will also focus on evacuation, extended displacement periods, and contact tracing based on the disaster scenario provided.

Note: Complete the assessments in this course in the order in which they are presented.


Disaster recovery plan nursing research paper

When disaster strikes, community members must be protected. A comprehensive recovery plan, guided by the MAP-IT (Mobilize, Assess, Plan, Implement, Track) framework, is essential to help ensure everyone’s safety. The unique needs of residents must be assessed to lessen health disparities and improve access to equitable services after a disaster. Recovery efforts depend on the appropriateness of the plan, the extent to which key stakeholders have been prepared, the quality of the trace-mapping, and the allocation of available resources. In a time of cost containment, when personnel and resources may be limited, the needs of residents must be weighed carefully against available resources.

In this assessment, you are a community task force member responsible for developing a disaster recovery plan for the Vila Health community using MAP-IT and trace-mapping, which you will present to city officials and the disaster relief team.

To prepare for the assessment, complete the Vila Health: Disaster Recovery Scenario simulation.

In addition, you are encouraged to complete the Disaster Preparedness and Management activity. The information gained from completing this activity will help you succeed with the assessment as you think through key issues in disaster preparedness and management in the community or workplace. Completing activities is also a way to demonstrate engagement.

Begin thinking about:

Disaster recovery plan nursing research paper

Community needs.

Resources, personnel, budget, and community makeup.
People accountable for implementation of the disaster recovery plan.
Healthy People 2020 goals and 2030 objectives.
A timeline for the recovery effort.
You may also wish to:

Review the MAP-IT (Mobilize, Assess, Plan, Implement, Track) framework, which you will use to guide the development of your plan:
Mobilize collaborative partners.
Assess community needs.
Plan to lessen health disparities and improve access to services.
Implement a plan to reach Healthy People 2020 goals or 2030 objectives.
Track community progress.
Review the assessment instructions and scoring guide to ensure that you understand the work you will be asked to complete.
Note: As you revise your writing, check out the resources listed on the Writing Center’s Writing Support page.

Note: If you require the use of assistive technology or alternative communication methods to participate in this activity, please contact DisabilityServices@capella.edu to request accommodations.


Disaster recovery plan nursing research paper

Every 10 years, The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion release information on health indicators, public health issues, and current trends. At the end of 2020, Healthy People 2030 was released to provide information for the next 10 years. Healthy People 2030 provides the most updated content when it comes to prioritizing public health issues; however, there are historical contents that offer a better understanding of some topics. Disaster preparedness is addressed in Healthy People 2030, but a more robust understanding of MAP-IT, triage, and recovery efforts is found in Healthy People 2020. For this reason, you will find references to both Healthy People 2020 and Healthy People 2030 in this course.

Complete the following:

Develop a disaster recovery plan for the Vila Health community that will lessen health disparities and improve access to services after a disaster. Refer back to the Vila Health: Disaster Recovery Scenario to understand the Vila Health community.
Assess community needs.
Consider resources, personnel, budget, and community makeup.
Identify the people accountable for implementation of the plan and describe their roles.
Focus on specific Healthy People 2020 goals and 2030 objectives.
Include a timeline for the recovery effort.
Apply the MAP-IT (Mobilize, Assess, Plan, Implement, Track) framework to guide the development of your plan:
Mobilize collaborative partners.
Assess community needs.
Use the demographic data and specifics related to the disaster to identify the needs of the community and develop a recovery plan. Consider physical, emotional, cultural, and financial needs of the entire community.
Include in your plan the equitable allocation of services for the diverse community.
Apply the triage classification to provide a rationale for those who may have been injured during the train derailment. Provide support for your position.
Include in your plan contact tracing of the homeless, disabled, displaced community members, migrant workers, and those who have hearing impairment or English as a second language in the event of severe tornadoes.
Plan to lessen health disparities and improve access to services.
Implement a plan to reach Healthy People 2020 goals and 2030 objectives.
Track and trace-map community progress.
Use the CDC’s Contract Tracing Resources for Health Departments as a template to create your contact tracing.
Describe the plan for contact tracing during the disaster and recovery phase.
Develop a slide presentation of your disaster recovery plan with an audio recording of you presenting your assessment of the Vila Health: Disaster Recovery Scenario for city officials and the disaster relief team. Be sure to also include speaker notes.
Presentation Format and Length
You may use Microsoft PowerPoint (preferred) or other suitable presentation software to create your slides and add your voice-over along with speaker notes. If you elect to use an application other than PowerPoint, check with your instructor to avoid potential file compatibility issues.

Be sure that your slide deck includes the following slides:

Title slide.
Recovery plan title.
Your name.
Course number and title.
References (at the end of your presentation).
Your slide deck should consist of 10–12 content slides plus title and references slides. Use the speaker’s notes section of each slide to develop your talking points and cite your sources as appropriate. Be sure to also include a transcript that matches your recorded voice-over. The transcript can be submitted on a separate Word document. Make sure to review the Microsoft PowerPoint tutorial for directions.

The following resources will help you create and deliver an effective presentation:

Record a Slide Show With Narration and Slide Timings.
This Microsoft article provides steps for recording slide shows in different versions of PowerPoint, including steps for Windows, Mac, and online.
Microsoft Office Software.
This Campus page includes tip sheets and tutorials for Microsoft PowerPoint.
PowerPoint Presentations Library Guide.
This library guide provides links to PowerPoint and other presentation software resources.
SoNHS Professional Presentation Guidelines [PPTX].
This presentation, designed especially for the School of Nursing and Health Sciences, offers valuable tips and links, and is itself a PowerPoint template that can be used to create a presentation.
Supporting Evidence
Cite at least three credible sources from peer-reviewed journals or professional industry publications within the past 5 years to support your plan.

Graded Requirements
The requirements outlined below correspond to the grading criteria in the scoring guide, so be sure to address each point:

Describe the determinants of health and the cultural, social, and economic barriers that impact safety, health, and recovery efforts in the community.
Consider the interrelationships among these factors.
Explain how your proposed disaster recovery plan will lessen health disparities and improve access to community services.
Consider principles of social justice and cultural sensitivity with respect to ensuring health equity for individuals, families, and aggregates within the community.
Explain how health and governmental policy impact disaster recovery efforts.
Consider the implications for individuals, families, and aggregates within the community of legislation that includes, but is not limited to, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, and the Disaster Recovery Reform Act (DRRA).
Present specific, evidence-based strategies to overcome communication barriers and enhance interprofessional collaboration to improve the disaster recovery effort.
Consider how your proposed strategies will affect members of the disaster relief team, individuals, families, and aggregates within the community.
Include evidence to support your strategies.
Organize content with clear purpose/goals and with relevant and evidence-based sources (published within 5 years).
Slides are easy to read and error free. Detailed audio and speaker notes are provided. Audio is clear, organized, and professionally presented.
Develop your presentation with a specific purpose and audience in mind.
Adhere to scholarly and disciplinary writing standards and APA formatting requirements.
Additional Requirements
Before submitting your assessment, proofread all elements to minimize errors that could distract readers and make it difficult for them to focus on the substance of your presentation.

Competencies Measured

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and scoring guide criteria:

Competency 1: Analyze health risks and health care needs among distinct populations.
Describe the determinants of health and the cultural, social, and economic barriers that impact safety, health, and disaster recovery efforts in a community.
Competency 2: Propose health promotion strategies to improve the health of populations.
Present specific, evidence-based strategies to overcome communication barriers and enhance interprofessional collaboration to improve disaster recovery efforts.
Competency 3: Evaluate health policies, based on their ability to achieve desired outcomes.
Explain how health and governmental policy impact disaster recovery efforts.
Competency 4: Integrate principles of social justice in community health interventions.
Explain how a proposed disaster recovery plan will lessen health disparities and improve access to community services.
Competency 5: Apply professional, scholarly communication strategies to lead health promotion and improve population health.
Organize content with clear purpose/goals and with relevant and evidence-based sources (published within 5 years).
Slides are easy to read and error free. Detailed audio, transcript, and speaker notes are provided. Audio is clear, organized, and professionally presented.
villa example
For a health care facility to be able to fill its role in the community, it must actively plan not only for normal operation, but also for worst-case scenarios which could occur. In such disasters, the hospital’s services will be particularly crucial, even if the specifics of the disaster make it more difficult for the facility to stay open.

In this scenario, you will resume your role as the senior nurse at Valley City Regional Hospital. Like many facilities within the Vila Health network, Valley City Regional serves as the primary source of health care for a wide area of North Dakota. As such, it is even more imperative than usual that it stay open and operational in all situations. Doing this means planning and preparation.

The administrator of the hospital, Jennifer Paulson, wants to talk to you about disaster preparedness and recovery at Valley City Regional. But first, you should read some background information about events in Valley City in the past few years, including the involvement of the hospital.

Investigate the scene for relevant background information.

Op-ed by Anne Levy, Valley City Herald

Valley City has had a great year, growing on a number of fronts. But all of our growth and success exists in the shadow of the recent past, a case of recent wounds slowly healing and fading to scars.

No one who was in Valley City two years ago will ever forget the catastrophic derailment of an oil-tanker train and the subsequent explosion and fire. While fatalities were fewer than they could have been, six residents of our city lost their lives. Nearly two hundred were hospitalized, and much of the city was temporarily evacuated. Several homes near the railroad tracks were leveled, and our water supply was contaminated by oil leakage for several months.

Life has resumed, and we have begun to thrive again, in our fashion. But the nagging feeling recurs: When the disaster struck, were our institutions properly prepared? No one wakes up in the morning expecting a train derailment, of course. But responsible institutions think about things that could go wrong within the realm of possibility, and make a plan. Many individuals performed brave, inspired, selfless service in the chaos of the derailment, but it is clear in retrospect that much of the work was improvised, disorganized, and often circular or at cross-purposes.

For the first two hours of the crisis, the Valley City Fire Department was caught unprepared by the damage to the city water supply caused by the explosion, which was more extensive than had been considered possible. The Fire and Police departments had trouble coordinating radio communications, and a clear chain of command at the scene between departments was painfully slow to emerge. The hospital was woefully understaffed for the first six hours of the crisis, taking far too long to find a way to bring additional staff and resources onto the scene. The city health department was unacceptably dilatory in testing the municipal water supply for contaminants.

A call from the Herald’s offices to City Hall confirmed that the city’s disaster plan is over a decade old, and is unfortunately myopic both in the events it considers as possible disasters and in the agencies it plans for. It is of utmost importance to the future of our city that this plan be revised, revisited, and expanded. All city agencies should review their own disaster plans and coordinate with the city for a master plan. The same goes for crucial non-government agencies, most especially the Valley City Regional Hospital. Of course, this all exists in the shadow of budget cuts both at city hall and the hospital.

The sun is shining today, without a cloud in the sky. This is the time to make sure we are ready for the next storm, so to speak, to hit our city. No one knows what the next crisis will be or when it will come. But we can count on the fact that no one will get up that morning expecting it.

Administrator, Valley City Hospital

Hello, thanks for stopping by. I hope you’re settling in well.

I’d been planning on talking to you about disaster planning in the near future anyway, but now it looks like it’s a lot more urgent. I’m not sure if you’ve heard, but the National Weather Service says we’re going to be at an elevated risk for severe tornadoes in Valley City this season. I’m taking that as a clear sign that it’s time we get serious about disaster planning. And it’s not just me… The mayor just called me and asked the hospital to check our preparedness for a mass-casualty event, given recent qualms about the way the derailment was handled. For instance, did you see that op-ed in the paper about disaster planning?

Anyway. My particular concern is patient triage in the near term and recovery efforts over the next six months. As I work on a more formal response to the Mayor about where we’re at for this threat, I’d appreciate it if you could do some research and planning on this matter. Even if we dodge the bullet on these tornadoes, there’ll be something else in the future. We need to stop putting it off and get serious about our disaster planning.

What I’d like for you to do first is take some time to talk to a good cross-section of people here at the hospital about what happened last time, and about our disaster plan in general. Make sure you get people from administration as well as frontline care staff; after all, problems can be visible in one area but not another a lot of times. So spread it around! Since you weren’t here for the train crisis, I think you’re in a unique position to have a fresh, unbiased outlook on it. Actually, first you might find it useful to take a look at the hospital fact sheet, just to brush up on our basics here.

After you’ve looked at the fact sheet and done some talking to people, I’d like you to swing back by and we’ll talk about next steps.


Fact Sheet
Valley City, ND, Demographics
Population: 8,295 (up from 6,585 in 2010 census)

Median Age: 43.6 years. 17.1% under age 18; 14.8% between 18 and 24; 21.1% between 25 and 44; 24.9% 46 – 64; 22% 65 or older.

Officially, residents are 93% white, 3% Latino, 2% African-American, 1% Native American, 1% other.

—additionally, unknown number of undocumented migrant workers with limited English proficiency

Special needs: 204 residents are elderly with complex health conditions; 147 physically disabled and/or use lip-reading or American Sign Language to communicate.

Note that the Valley City Homeless shelter runs at capacity and is generally unable to accommodate all of the city’s homeless population. Also, the city is in the midst of a financial crisis, with bankruptcy looming, and has instituted layoffs at the police and fire departments.

105-bed hospital (currently 97 patients; 5 on ventilators, 2 in hospice care.)

NOTEWORTHY: Both of VCRH’s ambulances are aging and in need of overhaul. Also, much of the hospital’s basic infrastructure and equipment is old and showing wear. The hospital has run at persistent deficits and has been unable to upgrade; may be looking at downsizing nursing staff.

Staff Interviews
Select each individual to hear their statement.

Kate McVeigh
Hey there! Yeah, I think I have a minute or two to talk about the derailment. Wow. It’s crazy. I guess that’s been a while, but it still feels like it just happened. It’s all so vivid!

I was on shift when it happened, so I was here for the whole thing. The blast, the first few injuries, and then the wave. I think I was working for 16 hours before Heather, the former head nurse, told me to leave before I passed out.

I just remember a big jumble. We had waves of people coming in before we were really aware of what we were up against. Someone actually brought out the disaster plan but it was kind of useless. Just a bunch of words about using resources wisely and what have you, no concrete steps or plan. And then people started pouring in and we started treating them and there just wasn’t time to figure out how to make that stuff about using resources wisely into an actual, concrete plan. I mean, of course it’s good advice to use your damned resources wisely in an emergency! But just saying that doesn’t help. Without a plan, we were just working our way through a line, or really more like a crowd, without any thought of triage or priorities or anything. You knew as you were doing it that it was bad, but what could you do? There was always a next person to help.

You know what would have been useful in that damn disaster plan? Strict, functional checklists and lists of steps and such. Concrete plans for a chain of command. Clear lists of what to do and what our priorities should have been. And I’m just talking doctor and nurse time here, as far as waste goes. I know we had critical problems with supplies and such, but I was too focused on patient care to really know what was going on there.

OK. I have to go do rounds. Good luck. Yikes. I’m all anxious just thinking about that again.

Megan Campbell
Oh, I remember the night of the derailment really well. I’ll never forget it. I was off that night, out for dinner with my family. Heard the boom and the word spread through the Pizza Hut about what had happened pretty quickly. I kept expecting a call telling me to come in to the hospital, but none ever came. After maybe ten minutes of that, I figured I’d better just come in on my own. It was pretty clear there were going to be a lot of people moving through the hospital.

I guess that was a little bit of a failure, but it’s nothing compared to what I saw when I showed up at the hospital. I just hustled into the ER and started helping out. It wasn’t clear who was in charge, and nobody was making any decisions. People just started piling in with burn wounds, smoke inhalation, blunt trauma from the explosion, you name it. And we were just dealing with them first-come, first serve, more or less. Just working our way through the room while people kept coming in and piling up. I knew that this wasn’t the right way to be doing this – heck, we all knew – but the room was too chaotic for anyone to take a second and say “stop” and impose some kind of systematic approach. I don’t know for sure if any lives were lost because of the muddle, but I know people with some very serious injuries suffered a lot longer than they needed to while we were treating people with minor sprains and contusions who’d just happened to get to the ER a little earlier.

Hope this helps!

Courtney Donovan
I can’t say that I feel great about the state of disaster planning here at the hospital. I know we keep talking about doing something, but it never seems to get any further than talk. I mean, no offense, but I think this is the third time since the derailment that someone has tried to talk to me about lessons learned. There’s a point where just that repetition makes it clear that no lessons have been learned.

But just to be a good sport: The big lesson from the derailment is that our staff is intelligent, resourceful, energetic, and flexible. That’s the good news. Stuck with a horrific situation and a disaster plan that I’d describe as “aspirational,” we got through a very rough event. It was more painful than it needed to be, since we had to improvise most of it and improvisation is never the most efficient way to do things. But we provided real help to people and I think we kept the loss of life admirably low.

But god. There was no structure, no thought to anything. I tried to get the nurses to perform some triage, but they were too busy reacting to the latest mini-crisis to pop up in front of them. I don’t blame them, of course! I tried to give some orders, but then like the nurses I was always pulled in to sit with the next patient, and someone else would come out and countermand whatever I’d said, and it just went on like that all night.

On a personal level, I know I pushed myself too hard that night. I mean, with good reason, but still. I was exhausted and loopy after 14 hours or so, and it’s just luck that I didn’t make any serious medical errors. I’m not the only one who put it all out there. I know most of the medical staff were in bad shape towards the end, too. I guess that’s always going to be a risk, but I think we could have planned our operations a little better. If we’d been more thoughtful about what we were doing, maybe we wouldn’t have needed to grind ourselves down so far.

You know what else? I’ve never felt good about our long-term check-ins afterwards. People who had recurring problems related to the derailment came in, but neither we at the hospital or anybody in public health did enough to check in with people on an ongoing basis in the months after the disaster. Even when we were having those water contamination issues! People forget about that–the derailment disaster really continued for months afterwards as the cleanup went on.

I hope you’re serious about taking this information and turning it into something useful. For god’s sake, please don’t just write it all down and keep it on your laptop this time.

Mike Horgan
Associate Director Hospital Operations
I have been screaming about the need to update our disaster plan for years. I was screaming about it before the train incident, too, but nobody would listen then. I figured people might listen afterwards, but that hasn’t been the case, at least so far. If I’m talking to you about this right now, maybe it’s a good sign.

Look. I respect the heck out of Jen Paulson, she’s been a great hospital administrator. But she’s also got a lot on her plate, and is never, ever able to properly take a step back and look at the big picture. Not her fault, it’s a systemic thing.

And all of our disaster-planning problems are systemic. The disaster plan as it exists is basically a binder full of memos, each memo just being something I or Jen or someone else went and wrote down after we’d had a conversation about what to do if there was a catastrophic snowstorm or what have you. At best, it works as a bunch of notes that you could use to build a real disaster plan out of. As something you could act on in a crisis? No way. And we proved that in the train incident.

One thing that makes me crazy about all of this: in all of our conversations, we act like we here at the hospital can cook up a plan on our own that’ll get us through anything. But that’s just crazy. We can and should have a plan. But when the stuff hits the fan, we’re not on our own and we can’t work from a plan that pretends we are. We interface directly with first responders: the fire department, the EMTs, and the police and sheriff’s departments. Our plan needs to coordinate with them. We saw that in spades on the night of the train explosion. We barely had functional communication with any of the other agencies for the first few hours of the crisis! People were being brought over by the ambulance load and just kind of dumped off so that they could go pick up the next wave! There was a serious problem with understandably panicked people crowding the hospital, mostly trying to find out where their loved ones were and if they were OK, and it was three in the morning before we had police here doing crowd control.

So if you’re helping Jen work on an improved disaster plan: First, thank you. Second, please, PLEASE reach out to people at other agencies around town and work out some joint-operation protocols for next time.

Andrew Steller
Hospital CFO
Well, welcome to the house of gripes.

Sorry. It’s just that this is kind of a tough stretch, since the budget realities we’re facing make everything extra difficult and fraught. Believe me, I understand the importance of planning for the next disaster. It’s just that this is one more thing that our shortfalls are going to make really, really difficult.

It’s looking pretty likely that we’re going to need to cut our nursing staff pretty soon. Aside from the day-to-day problems that’ll cause, it’ll have a huge impact in a disaster. But it’s worse than that. Impact from a disaster doesn’t just happen in the midst of the crisis. It lingers, just like we saw with the derailment. And we’re going to have a hell of a time in that aftermath phase if we’re dealing with a reduced workforce and reduced resources.

I mean, think about who gets impacted when something major happens. The impact, especially long-term, doesn’t affect everyone equally. Think about any kind of special-needs population: people who don’t speak English, people with grave health problems who need ongoing care, people with serious economic problems… Those people are going to be affected up-front at least as much, if not more than, the baseline population, but then their recovery is going to be that much harder. That’s a reality that’s been borne out over and over. You see it with health impact, economic impact, even physical impact. If you were a little bit behind before, you’ll be a bit further behind after. We need, as both a moral and legal imperative, to provide equal access and service for all of the different parts of a diverse community. And again, we’ll be facing that situation with reduced capacity.

Another thing that’s going to be a factor in our post-disaster recovery is government. Does FEMA step in? How long do they stay? Is there a disaster declaration, with some recovery funding? How about at the state level? Who’s coordinating all of this? This sort of thing requires a ton of communication and collaboration with governmental entities at all levels. We like to pretend we’re autonomous in these situations but we aren’t at all. There’s always a minefield of government funding and health policy to dig through as we try to put ourselves back together.

Sorry to be the voice of gloom and doom here. This stuff isn’t impossible, but god knows it’s difficult.

Anthony Martinez
Director, Facilities
Hey there.

Disaster planning, huh? Yeah, it’d be good to have a disaster plan. It’s hard to do in real life, when you’re trapped by the realities of a budget cycle. You know? Whatever we plan, whatever we think is the right thing to do for the long term, there’s also this reality that Vila Health HQ expects us to hit certain monetary targets and we have to not only factor that into any idea about disaster planning, but also have to focus on hitting those targets rather than sitting down and, you know, making a plan.

I try to do things in my own way as much as I can. For critical supplies in the building, I work to build as much of a cushion as the budget process will allow. Same for critical facilities; if we can financially make it work to make something redundant, I do it. It’d be great if this was more formally planned out and not a case of me stashing away a cache of saline solution when I can, but you deal with the reality you have and not the reality you wish you had.

This is all a response to that damn derailment, of course. God, that was a mess. I was new to this position then, still trying to clean up the disaster I’d stepped into. My predecessor, well, Ed Murphy was a great golfer but not much of a long-term thinker. Across the board, we had enough supplies for the next week’s normal operations and nothing more. Ed had read some book about just-in-time inventory and was all excited about how efficient that could make us. And that kind of efficiency’s great if you’re running an assembly line, but it doesn’t work so well if you have a hospital and something unexpected comes up, like an oil train jumping the tracks and blowing up.

I’d just started to build up some surplus supplies when that happened, nowhere near enough. We burned through supplies at a terrifying rate that night. Especially bandages and blood plasma. It didn’t help that the floor staff were just running around like crazy trying to treat people as they came in, not putting any thought into prioritizing who got what. I’m not blaming them, they were doing the best they could in a tough situation. But it meant that we were out of plasma for a while until Jackie Gifford from Fargo Methodist drove in with a truckload of replacements for us. It was like that all night, making frantic calls to hospitals and agencies all over the area, trying to get supplies. And keeping an eye on the fuel situation for the hospital generator, since the fire took out power for half the town.

God, what a mess. Took us six months to clean all that up. So disaster planning? Yeah, I’m all for it.

Follow-up Report
Meet with Jennifer to report your findings.

Jennifer Paulson
Administrator, Valley City Hospital
Thanks for talking to everyone! I bet you heard a lot.

I’d like you to take some time to sit and think about what you’ve heard and seen, and try to knit it all together into some overall conclusions that we can use to work up a plan to be ready for the next disaster.

Ultimately, I’d like you to be able to present a compelling case to community stakeholders (mayor and city disaster relief team) to obtain their approval and support for the proposed disaster recovery plan. I’d like you to use MAP-IT, and work up an approach supported by Healthy People 2020, and put it all into a PowerPoint. We’ll save the PowerPoint deck and the audio of its accompanying presentation at the public library so that the public can access it and see that we’re serious. Ideally, I’d like this to be used as a prototype for other local communities near Valley City, and possibly other facilities in the Vila Health organization.

Reflection Questions
Now that you have spoken with relevant team members, take a second to think about what you’ve heard.

What issues stand out to you as having gone particularly poorly in the hospital’s response to the train derailment?
This question has not been answered yet.
What looks to you like some items of concern that should be addressed in Valley City Regional Hospital’s disaster preparedness plan going forward?
This question has not been answered yet.
Congratulations! You have completed this activity!

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Mcdonald case-study

McDonald’s case study


McDonald has committed its efforts on enhancing the leadership talents development and ensuring continuity in management. The company has a talent management system that has gone through various approaches to improve the program. Some of these approaches include redesigning performance development system at the global level, enhancement of global succession planning, customized leadership programs, and the initiation of the leadership institute & global leadership development program. The various approaches have an effect on the organization’s metrics by increasing the diversity of leadership team and strength of the candidates, and retention of talented staffs.

McDonald’s case study
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The talent management program that led to success for the company

McDonald has designed and implemented five programs toward the improvement of the talents. Among the five programs, LAMP initiative led to the success of the company. This program led to the increase of employee’s performance in the organization. However, this program faced a challenge when the leaders found it difficult to take specific roles. The individual performance of the employees became weak which compromised the productivity level of the organization. The LAMP program identified several areas with competency gaps and sought to fill them up (Baporikar, 2017). The program sought to expand the employee’s mindset from the local through regional to global understanding of the business. more so, the program managed to enhance the employee’s innovative and creative thinking.

The LAMP initiative brought success of the organization because it committed its efforts on the idealistic aspects of the organization. Some of these aspects includes skills development, individual competency, and innovative abilities. The initiative seeks to offer the individuals with the understanding of the organization’s scope , which is global. It focuses on ensuring that the employees and other staffs have an international mindset. The goal of the program leads to the productivity of the organization by improving the key leadership positions, developing & retaining skilled staffs, quickening business results, enhancing diversity profile of the employees and leaders. The initiative focuses on performance by integrating a high-potential talent approach and using the leadership development as driving tools to progress (Baporikar, 2017).

McDonald’s case study

The strengths of the program and ways it led to goal accomplishment

The LAMP program has various strengths that led to the accomplishment of the organizational goals. The program was useful in retaining the top talent, which had a positive impact on the organization productivity. At the beginning of its implementation, the program gave focus on the ley leadership positions. The directors and managers went through the program, which developed their leadership skills and management abilities. Also, the leaders are given the confidence and readiness to pursue their distinctive roles. The leadership abilities and skills were greatly improved by the program, which led to efficiency in performance. The McDonald became a hub of skilled individuals who were productive towards the goals and visions of the organization. Moreover, the leaders gained the skills to govern the departments, teams, and oneself (Baporikar, 2017).

The Lamp initiative led to an increase in innovation and creative thinking. This benefit was fundamental in leading the organization toward its goal. Innovation increases production , improves customer satisfaction, reduces work boredom, and increases performance. The participants of the program acquired creative thinking leading to innovation. The ability to think out of norm was brought by the self-governing skills that gave individuals power to control and make decisions on their roles and duties. The ability to think creatively in the workplace gave the participants a sense of belonging and worthiness in the organization (Baporikar, 2017).

Increased communication is a strength in the organization that was brought by the LAMP program. The LAMP initiative created an atmosphere where the participants can have dialogues with their senior leaders during the implementation process. The initiative created room for the participant and their leaders to hold conversations on sharing knowledge and skill pertaining the productivity of the organization. The increased communication led to reduced bureaucracy process of dialogue. The leaders were brought near to their subordinate, which make them to understand their needs in reference to the job performance. The increased performance led by these strengths was evident in the local, regional, and global markets (Baporikar, 2017).

McDonald’s case study

The opportunities for improving the talents management planning process

The McDonald has numerous opportunities to improve the talent management planning process. Hiring to retain is an opportunity that the organization should use maximally. The organization should be willing to utilize its resources and energy in towards designing and implementing the training system. The training program should be identified used to improve the skills of the existing individuals to make them more productive. As a result, the employees will be happy to work in a resourceful way as they add value to the organization. The competitive benefit package is another aspect that helps to retain talented employees in the organization. The retention process is important because it creates a competitive advantage when talented staffs characterize the organization (Davis, Cutt, Flynn, & Mowl, 2016).

The leaders are an opportunity for the organization as they focus on improving the talent management system. The leaders have a role to recognize the need for a change or improvement to accomplish the goals of the organization. The investment of resources and strategies should be directed in improving the leaders’ abilities to improve its operations on current market standards. As a global organization, the company should empower their leaders to be competent in action and powers. The leaders acts as the spearheads because they carry the vision of the organization. When given the right platform and power, the leaders can influence the employees to work on advancing the vision of the organization. More so, skillful leaders are in a position to motivate employees to perform productively (Davis, Cutt, Flynn, & Mowl, 2016).

Innovation is another area that acts as an opportunity to improving the talent management process. The organization need to establish the fact that the market is dynamic and the preferences of the customers keeps on changing. In this regard, the organization seeks new ways of production and service delivery. Therefore, the employees are encourages to nurture innovation and utilize their creative thinking. Moreover, innovation is crucial in performing roles effectively and efficiently. Technology is integrated in an organization that seeks to use innovation as a means of production or service delivery. To adopt innovation, the organization should be open to change and introduce a culture that allows new approaches of production. Moreover, the organization should embrace flexibility in the strategic actions to motivate employees to practice creativity and innovation (Davis, Cutt, Flynn, & Mowl, 2016).

Streamlining the individual goals with the organization strategy is an opportunity to improve the talent management planning process. The organization should ensure that all individuls are aware of the organizational goals. The best talent management plan ensures that all individual goals are aligned with the organizational strategies. More so, the talent management tools should be corresponding with the organizational goals. The alignment of these goals and strategies allows uniformity in culture and behavior that drives the organization to the desired future. The talent management plan should give individuals focus on their specific roles to ensure that their behaviors are aligned with the corporate goals (Davis, Cutt, Flynn, & Mowl, 2016).

McDonald’s case study

Effective approaches to meet the talent management challenges in the future

The HR is responsible in coming up with approaches to meet the talent management challenges in the future. The HR should be knowledgeable of the talent that adds values to the organization. The HR should be aware of the skills that the organization needs to acquire a competitive advantage. The organization should keep in touch with the best employment firms. More so, it should have the best approaches to retain talented employees that are already in the organization. The knowledge is important when making decisions regarding the top-talent employees. The HR awareness keeps the organization in the balance of top talents, best training programs, and effective information sharing in the organization. More so, the knowledge will minimize the risk of hiring unskilled employees in the distinct job positions (Farndale, SPARROW, Scullion & Vidovic, 2018).

The dialogue or open communication should be consistent in the organization. The employees should access their leaders easily without major bureaucracies. In addition, the leaders should be free to communicate their gratitude to the employees. The communication process reduces the chances of employees feeling dissatisfied with their jobs. It promotes cohesion in the workplace between employees and the leaders. A good communication plan is crucial that is guided by the right policies (Farndale, SPARROW, Scullion & Vidovic, 2018).  The employees are motivated and satisfied by the workplace. As a result, they perform productively.

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Effective management in business


 Effective management in business

Effective management in business

An example of one company that should employ the simple structure organizational configuration. Effective management in business

A simple organizational structure is used by small businesses such as SMEs. This structure consists of a default operating system that allows centralized decision-making with the business owner. This structure does not have layered departments or formal operations. The simple organizational structure gives the owner the ability to control all activities. Every decision in the company is made with his approval since he or she is aware of every decision made. The structure is not complex, allowing the owner to oversee every aspect of his or her business. Employees do not delay in their responsibilities or hesitate orders because they come directly from the top-leader without departmental managers. The process of making a decision is quick with a simple structure because there are no layers of departments or management that need ideas, and requests need to climb before approval. The employer has a direct link with the employees, fostering a good relationship. Also, the employer can understand the need of the employees to improve their productivity because they often interact (Sinha, Singh, Thakkar, Shah, & Sharma, 2017).

Effective management in business

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An example of one company that uses the machine bureaucracy form of structure

Machine bureaucracy is a management structure with high levels of specialization. The top management makes a decision that is supposed to be executed by the lower-level employees. This structure should be used by large and established companies. One of the companies using this kind of management structure is Delta Airlines in the USA. This kind of structure works well with a traditional style of working, especially if the company does routine tasks. Machine bureaucracy has some advantages, such as specialized tasks performed by each employee. Every employee is well aware of what they are supposed to do. The structure forms a framework for operating the corporation or organization. The organization gains stability since everybody knows what they must do and who makes the decision (Sinha, Singh, Thakkar, Shah, & Sharma, 2017).

Effective management in business

Describe the kinds of organizations that should feature a professional bureaucracy form of structure. Give an example of one such organization.

An organization that performs several administrative functions should employ a professional bureaucracy structure of management. Also, a manufacturing company, schools, and HR agents should use this kind of structure. In these organizations, similar tasks or functions are done by several people due to increased workload. For example, the city hall uses this kind of structure to manage its operations. The structure has the operation of the business as a vital role, and it uses standardized skills to coordinate mechanisms. It uses both vertical and horizontal decentralization (Sinha, Singh, Thakkar, Shah, & Sharma, 2017).

Effective management in business

Describe the kinds of firms that should use the divisional form of structure. Provide an example.

Divisional structure is used to organize activities of the business based on market, products, geographical, and service groups. An example of an organization using the divisional structure is ABC International, after it passed $250 million in sales. This kind of structure places decision making close to the customers. It allows accountability since responsibilities are easier to assign for actions and results. It works well in a highly competitive environment where it gives the management the ability to quickly change the direction of the business in response to change in the market (Sinha, Singh, Thakkar, Shah, & Sharma, 2017).

Effective management in business

Describe the types of organizations that are best suited to the adhocracy form of structure. Provide an example.

Adhocracy is an organizational structure that tends to be very flexible, loosely tied, and able to change frequently. It helps an organization to recognize problems and solve them in a complex dynamic environment. The structure is less hierarchical to address urgent issues using trained experts in problem-solving. Innovative organizations are likely to use adhocracy structure in their business. For example, filmmaking and pharmaceutical companies are creative. These organizations use adhocracy to form creative teams from different areas of operation (Sinha, Singh, Thakkar, Shah, & Sharma, 2017).

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Chapter 31

Chapter 31

How to Develop the Main Idea of a Bible Passage


A question you may have at this point is, so what do I do with all this now? There is no great value in knowledge for knowledge sake. Learning how to study the Bible more effectively is, however, intrinsically valuable in that knowing God’s Word is part of knowing God. Our burden, though, with this book is not merely to help you have a more effective personal quiet time. While learning to study the Bible effectively can help you grow in the Lord, it also offers a ministry outlet: learning how to communicate God’s word more effectively to others.

This section of the book (chapters 31–33) is designed to help you learn how to communicate God’s word to others. In this chapter, we will focus on taking the material you have amassed in your study of a passage and developing a main idea and outline that can serve as the basis for a teaching outline, sermon, or written article.

There are many approaches to developing outlines. This chapter will focus on developing an expositional outline—that is, one that will be developed from the text itself. The main idea will be a summary of the content of the text, and the main points that develop the main idea will also come from the text. I firmly believe that this is the best place to start. Bible study that is done well is the foundation for teaching and preaching done well. We will not abandon that process now!

The Main Idea

Before developing an expositional outline, it is best to develop the main idea. In my undergraduate program, my professor taught us how to develop a “surefire proposition.” Twenty-five years later, I have not forgotten the process. It is that process that we will follow here.

In order to develop this “surefire proposition,” we will need to revisit the block diagram that we developed (chapter 22) on Galatians 5:16–18. Here is what the block diagram looked like:

I say then,


by the Spirit

you and

will not carry out the desire

of the flesh.

For the flesh desires what is

against the Spirit,


the Spirit desires what is

against the flesh;

these are opposed

to each other,

so that you don’t do what you want.


if you are led

by the Spirit,

you are not

under the law.

Once you have laid out the block diagram for your passage, determine how many main sections there are in the passage. This will require you to examine the structural layout of the diagram and think through how these sections relate to each other. It will look something like this:

Once you have laid out the block diagram and determined the number of main sections in the passage, there are a few more steps before you can write out the surefire proposition. First, try to summarize the basic theme of the verse in a few words. For example, John 3:16 is obviously about God’s love for the world. We are not looking for something profound but, rather, a basic summary. You can always polish it later if you like. The theme of this passage could be described in a variety of ways, but here’s one option: “the desires of the flesh.” Again, at this point, an accurate summary of the theme is more important than something perfectly polished.

After you have nailed down the theme, combine the number of the main sections and the theme and you have two of the three ingredients for a surefire proposition. All that is needed now is the appropriate plural noun. What do I mean by a plural noun? Perhaps it is best to see the surefire proposition without the plural noun:

In Galatians 5:16–18, there are three ________ regarding the desires of the flesh.

In the blank, we want to place a plural noun that is based on the three sections of the passage. We might call them truths, questions, facts, observations, steps, or something similar. What is important is that the word be an accurate reflection of what is seen in the text. Whatever you decide to call them, they become the basis for the main sections of your outline. For this example, let us put it this way:

In Galatians 5:16–18, we can make three observations regarding the desire of the flesh.

Building the Outline

Now that the surefire proposition is established, you can develop the rest of the expositional outline. Remember, the surefire proposition describes the main idea of the text, and the main points of the outline also come from the text and develop this surefire proposition. We are doing nothing more than describing what is going on in the text.

Our surefire proposition stated that the outline will consist of three observations regarding the desires of the flesh. To develop this, we need to return to the three main sections from our block diagram. The first main section of this passage reads, “I say then, walk by the Spirit and you will not carry out the desire of the flesh” (Gal 5:16). What observation could we make that would briefly describe what Pail is saying in relation to the desire of the flesh? One observation that would sufficiently describe this portion of the passage could be “Submitting to the desire of the flesh is not inescapable.”

The second section of the passage is 5:17: “For the flesh desires what is against the Spirit, and the Spirit desires what is against the flesh; these are opposed to each other, so that you don’t do what you want.” This section explains that walking in the Spirit and giving in to the desire of the flesh are incompatible acts. They are both indeed acts of submission; one either submits to the rule of the flesh or submits to the rule of the Holy Spirit. What observation adequately describes this verse? Let’s try this: “Submitting to both the flesh and the Spirit is not possible.”

The final section of this passage is, “But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law” (5:18). So the one who submits to the Spirit is the one who is no longer under the law. In other words, only those who possess the Spirit can submit to him. And those who are in him are no longer under the rule of the law. Those who are governed by the flesh, on the other hand, remain under the law. Thus a third observation that describes this section is, “Submitting to the Spirit, for the Christian, is natural.”

These three observations serve as the basic structure of the outline. At the top, you should state your surefire proposition followed by the main points of your outline. It would look like this:

In Galatians 5:16–18, we can make three observations regarding the desire of the flesh.

  1. I. Submitting to the desire of the flesh is not inescapable.v. 16: “I say then, walk by the Spirit and you will not carry out the desire of the flesh.”
  2. II. Submitting to both the flesh and the Spirit is not possible.v. 17: “For the flesh desires what is against the Spirit, and the Spirit desires what is against the flesh; these are opposed to each other, so that you don’t do what you want.”
  3. III. Submitting to the Spirit, for the Christian, is natural.v. 18: “But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law.”

You should pause here and look at your work so far. Does the surefire proposition capture the verse or passage in a single sentence? Are the main points a faithful reflection of the three sections of the text? Do the main points develop the surefire proposition? If you called the main points “observations” (or “truth” or “questions,” etc.), are your main points actually observations (or truths or questions, etc.)?

Once the surefire proposition and the main points of the outline are developed, you should see if any of the main points can be developed further. As you might guess, it is the block diagram that will help you here. Look at each section and determine where the subsections can be found. It could look something like this:

Each of these subsections can further develop the main points of your outline. Just remember, the process is really just a matter of describing what you see. These subsections, if done correctly, will relate to the main idea that you have already established. Once you have developed the outline fully, you have the framework upon which the material gleaned from your observations steps can hang.

In Galatians 5:16–18, we can make three observations regarding the desire of the flesh.

  1. I. Submitting to the desire of the flesh is not inescapable.v. 16: “I say then, walk by the Spirit and you will not carry out the desire of the flesh.”
    1. A. The obedience required in order to avoid the flesh. “walk by the Spirit”
    2. B. The result of submitting to the Spirit. “You will not carry out …”
  2. II. Submitting to both the flesh and the Spirit is not possible.v. 17: “For the flesh desires what is against the Spirit, and the Spirit desires what is against the flesh; these are opposed to each other, so that you don’t do what you want.”
    1. A. The battle between the flesh and the Spirit described. “For the flesh …”
    2. B. The incompatibility explained. “These are opposed …”
  3. III. Submitting to the Spirit, for the Christian, is natural.v. 18: “But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law.”
    1. A. The condition: being led by the Spirit. “But if …”
    2. B. The result: being free from the law (a Christian). “You are not …”

Outlining is part art and part science. The first step to developing sound expositional outlines is the science of observing what is going on in the passage. As students of God’s Word, we are first and foremost aiming to correctly describe the Bible. A well-organized outline is an excellent foundation for the other steps in the process.


Study Questions

  1. 1. What is the first step in developing an expositional outline?
  2. 2. How is a block diagram instrumental to developing an expositional outline?
  3. 3. Which is more important in an outline, accuracy or alliteration?
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Chapter 33

Chapter 33

How to Form an Introduction and Conclusion to Your Study


After you have designed your structural outline and inserted all the relevant material as your own personal notes, you should have a lengthy outline to reference in any setting, whether it be teaching, preaching, or writing. Every well-developed outline needs a few more components in order to be ready for the task of communication. Those elements are an introduction, a conclusion, transition statements, and illustrations.

How to Form an Introduction


When writing an introduction, you should keep two purposes in mind. The first purpose of an introduction is to arouse interest. Your introduction should be able to answer “yes” to each of the following questions: Is this worth listening to? Is this relevant (up to date)? Is this practical?

Another purpose of a good introduction is to prepare hearts and minds. Your listeners or readers need to be prepared to apprehend truth, appreciate the importance of the Word of God, and—perhaps most importantly—accept the conclusions and the claims that God’s Word makes.

Good Introductions

Like most aspects of communication, introductions can be done well or poorly. Here are a few characteristics of a good introduction. First, it must be well-prepared. Have you thought through the content of your introduction? Have you considered how you will write or say it? A second characteristic of a good introduction is that it must be presented with conviction and confidence. Third, a good introduction must be simple and transitional. In other words, it is not the study itself. The introduction can’t “let the cat out of the bag” and reveal too much. Rather, it should orient the listener or reader toward the lesson that is to follow. Finally, introductions must be varied. This is highly important if you are teaching, preaching, or writing regularly. Like anything, an approach can become boring if it always follows the same track. Consider these five kinds of introductions: interesting, arresting material (a quote, statistic, thought provoking statement), a statement of relevance or importance, reading the text to be preached, or a simple explanation of how the text deals with the subject. Your introduction can also incorporate more than one of these.

Developing an Introduction

Sometimes, developing an introduction can be a challenge. The following are a few suggestions for finding the material or the inspiration for an introduction. Sometimes, there is an occasion during which you are teaching or writing. For example, holidays such as Christmas or Easter are the perfect occasions from which an introduction can be drawn. Second, the surrounding context of the passage you are teaching can serve as an appropriate introduction. This is especially true if you are teaching through a series. In this case, reviewing the previous week’s lesson can be a sufficient introduction. Third, the historical background of a book or passage can also be the perfect backdrop for an introduction. These run the risk of being boring, but they don’t have to be! Some of the historical background information in the Bible is riveting. Fourth, if your passage contains meaningful geographic references, the introduction could address it. A fifth approach would be a biographical sketch of a biblical character that is relevant to the lesson. Lastly, a relevant story could also appropriately introduce a passage.

Finally, it is important to develop a transition from the introduction to the main body of your teaching outline. Whatever the makeup of your introduction, you will need to work on smoothly transitioning to your surefire proposition. Furthermore, it’s usually helpful for you and your listeners to indicate where you are going with the passage (e.g., “three observations regarding the desire of the flesh”).

How to Form a Conclusion


If you consider the main part of your lesson as a flight, your conclusion is the landing. Bad landings (conclusions) can make great flights (lessons) forgettable. Good conclusions should bring unity and clarity to your lesson. They should be organized and coherent. Conclusions should be personal as they draw listeners or readers toward personal decision. Conclusions should be specific rather than vague and, like introductions, should have variety. But more than anything else, conclusions need to be well-planned.

As with introductions, conclusions can be poor. A few examples of conclusions to be avoided include touchdown conclusions (“do this and all your problems will go away”), circling conclusion (that seem to never end), and detachable (“one size fits all”) conclusions.

Good Conclusions

Building good conclusions takes practice, but there are a few things to keep in mind. First, conclusions should always keep with the proposition and aim of the lesson. The conclusion will be confusing if it charts an entirely new direction. Second, keep the conclusion brief. Land the plane. Long, drawn-out conclusions that ramble are a sign of unplanned conclusions. Third, conclusions should answer the “so what?” question. What is the appropriate response to this lesson? Finally, a conclusion should be about the entire lesson, not just the final point. Some conclusions to cultivate include application conclusions, illustration conclusions, direct appeal conclusions, and summary conclusions.


Any time you communicate, whether writing or speaking, it’s important to think through your transitions. Transitions are the “seams” that enable you to flow naturally from one point to another. Transitional sentences are necessary for the following reasons: (1) clarification of thought; (2) cohesion—they are the glue that holds your sermon together; and (3) preaching efficiency—they keep the sermon moving from point to point.

A well-planned, quality transition should serve as a transporter moving the listener or reader from one main idea to the next. Good transitions use bridge words such as “finally,” “not only—but also,” “again,” “in addition to,” “besides,” “furthermore,” “moreover,” and “on the other hand.” You can also transition by giving a skillful summary of the previous idea before moving on to the next idea. Transitions can be boring, especially if you resort to the same approach every time, so use variety and plan them in advance.



Illustrations are an important aspect of any form of communication. They can be described in multiple ways. Illustrations are analogies used to explain or apply truth. They are concrete examples used to support general assertions in order to reduce the level of abstractions. Illustrations are windows to let the light of understanding shine on that which is unknown.

Illustrations serve multiple purposes. They can illuminate or clarify a subject, obtain and hold interest, establish rapport, give rest to the audience when a topic is particularly weighty, make a truth vivid, strengthen the argument, bring conviction of sin, persuade, aid memory, add humor, stimulate imagination, speak to a difficult situation indirectly, or make the message practical. Illustrations are tangible. They help the listener or reader see truth in action, aid in making application, show the need for truth or the advantage of applying truth, show the popularity of a given topic, and demonstrate the disastrous consequences if the lesson is not applied.

Good Illustrations

A good illustration is fresh, interesting, and up to date. You can accomplish this by drawing from personal experience, firsthand observation, or old stories provided you deliver them well and give them a new twist. A good illustration must be convincing and accurate. Avoid errors of fact and errors of probability. Good illustrations must also be understandable and interesting. A confusing illustration is particularly problematic since illustrations are meant to assist in understanding. Illustrations can be personal, but avoid illustrations that will bring harm or embarrassment to anyone. Above all, good illustrations must illustrate the point you are explaining in the passage. What types of illustrations are there? Illustrations come in a variety of forms: stories, anecdotes, parables/allegories, object lessons, dramatizations, figurative language, poems, analogies, and quotations.

Sources for Illustrations

Where can illustrations be found? By far, the best source for illustrations is the Bible itself. There are numerous reasons that biblical illustrations are the best. They teach the passage from which the illustration comes plus the passage you’re interpreting. They honor the God of the Bible. They enlist the presence and power of the Holy Spirit as he works through Scripture. They open the hearts and minds of the hearers in unexpected ways. They give the speaker added authority. They never wear out and are never out of date. They never arouse adverse criticism. And they show the unity of the Bible.

There are other places, though, besides the Bible from whence illustrations can be drawn: personal experience, personal observations, nature, sports, entertainment, biographies, history, missions, literature, science, art, archaeology, theology, and, of course, your imagination.


After you have a complete and well-developed outline, it’s time to add the finishing touches. These touches include an introduction, a conclusion, well-planned transitional statements, and illustrations. These elements will engage your readers/listeners and aid in their attentiveness and understanding.

Study Questions

  1. 1. What are the purposes of an introduction?
  2. 2. What are the purposes of a conclusion?
  3. 3. What is the definition of a transition?
  4. 4. What are the purposes of an illustration?
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Health Disparities

Eliminating Health Disparities | proficientwritershub.com

Health Disparities

There exist wide disparities in the health status of individuals in various social groups.
The majority of people that belong to the lower socio-economic position will generally be at a
higher risk of poor health. The National Institute of Health defines health disparities as the
differences among specific population groups in the attainment of quality health care measured
in terms of incidence, prevalence, mortality, burden disease, and other adverse health conditions.
The World Health Organization further defines health disparities as systemic differences in
distributing health resources between different population groups. On the other hand, healthy
People (2010) defines health disparities as the health 'differences that occur by gender, race or
ethnicity, education or income, disability, geographic location, or sexual orientation." Health
disparities are linked to economic, ethnic, social, and environmental disadvantages both to
individuals and societies. Health disparities are unfair as they tend to steal away the health equity
the government strives hard to provide.

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Health disparities indicators

Scholars have used various health indicators to demonstrate the concept of health
disparities among the various groups in a country's population, whether based on ethnicity,
religion, or social class. Infant gestation age is one such indicator used. Infant gestation age is
used to predict morbidity and infant mortality, and it has been found to differ among the various
racial and ethnic groups. According to 2014 statistics from the National Center for Health
Statistics (NCHS), African American women had the highest percentage of preterm singleton
births at 11.1%, while the Asian had the lowest 6.8% (Thornton, 2017). NCHS further notes that
while the infants' mortality rates significantly declined from 2004 to 2014, disparities among the
racial groups persisted. Heart-related conditions and cancer result in more deaths across race and ethnic lines. African Americans were more likely than whites to die from heart-related complications, according to 2010 statistics. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention reports that close to 44% of African American men and 48% of African American women have
some form of a heart-related condition (Thornton, 2017). Disparities are also noticeable in the
rates of homicide-related deaths reported. Homicide-related deaths are closely related to mental
health, and thus, disparities in addressing mental health raise the rates of homicides. The highest
rates of homicide-related deaths are reported among African Americans at 4.2%.
One possible cause of health disparity is social disadvantages (Thornton, 2017). The
social disadvantage arises due to unjust and avoidable social factors. According to Healthy
People (2010), there is a difference between a "health difference" and a "health disparity" in that
a health difference results from inherent biological factors while a health disparity results from
social factors (Thornton, 2017). Secondly, racial/ethnic differences also contribute to health
disparities, especially when health providers are biased or stereotype against patients because of
their skin color, religion, or ethnicity. Although race and ethnicities are social constructs, they
have a tangible impact on one's perception of self and how others perceive him/her. Health
disparities affecting the minority population groups in the US include a higher prevalence of
chronic conditions and premature death than their White counterparts. The language barrier is
another possible cause. If the health care provider and the patient fail to communicate and
understand each other, quality health care can be compromised.

Health disparity in the USA

In the United States, different forms of disparity exist, such as race, sex, age, disability,
sexuality, socio-economic status, origin, and geographical location, contributing to one's ability
to achieve good health (Thornton, 2017). In 2008, 38% of the USA population identified as
belonging to the minority, 51 % are women, 23% live in rural areas, and 4% of the population acknowledges being Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (The Center for Disease Control
and Prevention, 2019). The health disparity among the LGBT minority group, for instance, arises
from the stigma, social and legal discrimination they face from the wider society. Premature
deaths are highly prevalent among people living in rural areas, either due to lack of or inadequate
health provision. Other minority groups in the US majorly affected by health disparities include
the Native Americans and military veterans (Gollust et al., 2018). This demographic summary
offers insight into the diverse nature of the population and its role in healthcare disparities.
My interest in this topic is based on the need to understand my role in promoting
universal healthcare. The health disparities topic compromises the goal of universal healthcare
and healthy people 2020. The Healthy People 2020 is a national government policy that focuses
on building a healthier nation. Its objective looks at identifying preventable threats and reducing
them to achieve a society with people who live long and healthy (The Center for Disease Control
and Prevention, 2019). As a nurse, my interest is to understand my position in addressing the
issue with practice-based techniques. Nurses have the privilege to influence individuals as they
relate with patients, organizations, and policy development. Nurses can communicate with
patients during clinical encounters to improve their medical care perception at an individual
level. Nurses can influence organizations in structuring care delivery that focus on patient needs
with diversity sensitivity. At a policy level, nurses can advocate and participate in policy
development to ensure improved access from minority groups. Policy developments can lead to
culturally and linguistically sensitive care delivery.
The primary goal of public health in the US is to reduce health disparities (Thornton et
al., 2016). Despite the significant strides made in eliminating health disparities, equity in health
is yet to be achieved. Possible solutions to reduce health disparities include early childhood interventions such as structured early childhood education, improving health and lifestyle
behaviors, addressing socio-contextual barriers such as access to employment, and providing
culturally competent health care.
Early childhood interventions, including structured early childhood education and
parental support, generally influence health outcomes positively (Thornton et al., 2016). Through
quality education, the economic inequalities are addressed, and so are the hygiene levels across
all populations. Along ethnic lines, economic inequalities are to blame for the shift in health
disparities. Early childhood will, in the long-term, make a sizeable contribution to reducing
health disparities. The early-childhood interventions can be implemented as community-based
programs funded by the federal governments and the states.
Additionally, colleges and universities can take the students from the community-based
program to enable them further their education and eventually turning them into essential people
in the community. Ignoring the solutions to the widening health disparities in the US would
affect the citizens' overall production, and this will have adverse effects across all sectors of the
political and socio-economic spheres. Implementing early childhood education requires
combined efforts, and therefore, a failure by any party could be catastrophic as it would bring the
entire system built on the intervention down.
The early childhood education-centered intervention's ethical implication would be a
conflict between the child and the guardian because children are subject to stewardship by
guardians. A common presumption of societies that protect and promote the family's institution
is that the parent is responsible for the child's cultural, religious, and philosophical views and
perceptions and significantly makes decisions on behalf of the child (Moon, 2019). Possible
conflicts could arise if the guardians of children wishing to be enrolled fail to give permission.

However, amicable discussions and parents' involvement in articulating the early childhood
education-centered intervention would go a long way in ensuring that the intervention is

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PSYC 1310 Concorde Career College Career Problem Discussion

Question Description

I’m studying and need help with a Psychology question to help me learn.


Think about the problems you are now encountering or may be encountering in the future. Consider problems about relationships, money, living arrangements, school, career, family, friends, or others.


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Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota Psychology Essay




Part I

  • What is your major or career plan?-nursing
  • What are some of your hobbies/interests?-volleyball
  • What else would you like us to know about you? (For example, favorite movies/books/TV shows, your family, things that make you unique, or anything else you’d like us to know!)

Part II

  • Why is it important to be knowledgeable about the history of psychology?
  • What can we learn about current issues in psychology by looking at the past? How can historical views of psychology be useful for understanding today’s problems?
  • Is it useful to learn about theories that are no longer in use, or that have been deemed highly controversial?


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Psychology of Adulthood Discussion




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Capella University Psychology Discussion




Respond to one of the following in a minimum of 175 words:

Option A: Locate an article in the University Library that includes statistical analysis in research. Explain the broad objective for conducting this research. Does this represent the only broad objective for psychological research? If not, what other objectives define the purpose for psychological research?

Option B: Share a question you have that you would like to research. What is the population of interest? What type of sample would you collect for this study? Explain what guidelines you used to select that sample.Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words:


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