Max and Veronica Develop a Bond Investment Program
Case Problem 10.1 Max and Veronica Develop a Bond Investment Program
Max and Veronica Shuman, along with their teenage sons, Terry and Thomas, live in Portland, Oregon. Max is a sales rep for a major medical firm, and Veronica is a personnel officer at a local bank. Together they earn an annual income of around $100,000. Max has just learned that his recently departed rich uncle has named him in his will to the tune of some $250,000 after taxes. Needless to say, the family is elated. Max intends to spend $50,000 of his inheritance on a number of long-overdue family items (like some badly needed remodeling of their kitchen and family room, the down payment on a new Porsche Boxster, and braces to correct Tom’s overbite). Max wants to invest the remaining $200,000 in various types of fixed-income securities.
Max and Veronica have no unusual income requirements or health problems. Their only investment objectives are that they want to achieve some capital appreciation, and they want to keep their funds fully invested for at least 20 years. They would rather not have to rely on their investments as a source of current income but want to maintain some liquidity in their portfolio just in case.
Case Problem 10.2 The Case of the Missing Bond Ratings
It’s probably safe to say that there’s nothing more important in determining a bond’s rating than the underlying financial condition and operating results of the company issuing the bond. Just as financial ratios can be used in the analysis of common stocks, they can also be used in the analysis of bonds—a process we refer to as credit analysis. In credit analysis, attention is directed toward the basic liquidity and profitability of the firm, the extent to which the firm employs debt, and the ability of the firm to service its debt.
|Financial Ratio||Company 1||Company 2||Company 3||Company 4||Company 5||Company 6|
|1. Current ratio||1.13||1.39||1.78||1.32||1.03||1.41|
|2. Quick ratio||0.48||0.84||0.93||0.33||0.50||0.75|
|3. Net profit margin||4.6%||12.9%||14.5%||2.8%||5.9%||10.0%|
|4. Return on total capital||15.0%||25.9%||29.4%||11.5%||16.8%||28.4%|
|5. Long-term debt to total capital||63.3%||52.7%||23.9%||97.0%||88.6%||42.1%|
|6. Owners’ equity ratio||18.6%||18.9%||44.1%||1.5%||5.1%||21.2%|
|7. Pretax interest coverage||2.3||4.5||8.9||1.7||2.4||6.4|
|8. Cash flow to total debt||34.7%||48.8%||71.2%||20.4%||30.2%||42.7%|
The financial ratios shown in the preceding table are often helpful in carrying out such analysis. The first two ratios measure the liquidity of the firm; the next two, its profitability; the following two, the debt load; and the final two, the ability of the firm to service its debt load. (For ratio 5, the lower the ratio, the better. For all the others, the higher the ratio, the better.) The table lists each of these ratios for six companies.
Case Problem 11.1: The Bond Investment Decisions of Dave and Marlene Carter
Dave and Marlene Carter live in the Boston area, where Dave has a successful orthodontics practice. Dave and Marlene have built up a sizable investment portfolio and have always had a major portion of their investments in fixed-income securities. They adhere to a fairly aggressive investment posture and actively go after both attractive current income and substantial capital gains. Assume that it is now 2016 and Marlene is currently evaluating two investment decisions: one involves an addition to their portfolio, the other a revision to it.
The Carters’ first investment decision involves a short-term trading opportunity. In particular, Marlene has a chance to buy a 7.5%, 25-year bond that is currently priced at $852 to yield 9%; she feels that in two years the promised yield of the issue should drop to 8%.
The second is a bond swap. The Carters hold some Beta Corporation 7%, 2029 bonds that are currently priced at $785. They want to improve both current income and yield to maturity and are considering one of three issues as a possible swap candidate: (a) Dental Floss, Inc., 7.5%, 2041, currently priced at $780; (b) Root Canal Products of America, 6.5%, 2029, selling at $885; and (c) Kansas City Dental Insurance, 8%, 2030, priced at $950. All of the swap candidates are of comparable quality and have comparable issue characteristics.
Case Problem 11.2 Grace Decides to Immunize Her Portfolio
Grace Hesketh is the owner of an extremely successful dress boutique in downtown Chicago. Although high fashion is Grace’s first love, she’s also interested in investments, particularly bonds and other fixed-income securities. She actively manages her own investments and over time has built up a substantial portfolio of securities. She’s well versed on the latest investment techniques and is not afraid to apply those procedures to her own investments.
Grace has been playing with the idea of trying to immunize a big chunk of her bond portfolio. She’d like to cash out this part of her portfolio in seven years and use the proceeds to buy a vacation home in her home state of Oregon. To do this, she intends to use the $200,000 she now has invested in the following four corporate bonds (she currently has $50,000 invested in each one).
1. A 12-year, 7.5% bond that’s currently priced at $895
2. A 10-year, zero-coupon bond priced at $405
3. A 10-year, 10% bond priced at $1,080
4. A 15-year, 9.25% bond priced at $980
(Note: These are all noncallable, investment-grade, nonconvertible/straight bonds.)