# Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

1) Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

Answer

a)A two-stock portfolio will always have a lower standard deviation than a one-stock portfolio.

b)A portfolio that consists of 40 stocks that are not highly correlated with “the market” will probably be less risky than a portfolio of 40 stocks that are highly correlated with the market, assuming the stocks all have the same standard deviations.

c)A two-stock portfolio will always have a lower beta than a one-stock portfolio.

d)If portfolios are formed by randomly selecting stocks, a 10-stock portfolio will always have a lower beta than a one-stock portfolio.

e)A stock with an above-average standard deviation must also have an above-average beta.

2 points

Question 2

Your portfolio consists of $50,000 invested in Stock X and $50,000 invested in Stock Y. Both stocks have an expected return of 15%, betas of 1.6, and standard deviations of 30%. The returns of the two stocks are independent, so the correlation coefficient between them, rXY, is zero. Which of the following statements best describes the characteristics of your 2-stock portfolio?

Answer

a)Your portfolio has a standard deviation of 30%, and its expected return is 15%.

b)Your portfolio has a standard deviation less than 30%, and its beta is greater than 1.6.

c)Your portfolio has a beta equal to 1.6, andits expected return is 15%.

d)Your portfolio has a beta greater than 1.6, and its expected return is greater than 15%.

e)Your portfolio has a standard deviation greater than 30% and a beta equal to 1.6.

Question 3

Assume that in recent years both expected inflation and the market risk premium (rM− rRF) have declined. Assume also that all stocks have positive betas. Which of the following would be most likely to have occurred as a result of these changes?

Answer

The required returns on all stocks have fallen, but the decline has been greater for stocks with lower betas.

The required returns on all stocks have fallen, but the fall has been greater for stocks with higher betas.

The average required return on the market, rM, has remained constant, but the required returns have fallen for stocks that have betas greater than 1.0.

Required returns have increased for stocks with betas greater than 1.0 but have declined for stocks with betas less than 1.0.

The required returns on all stocks have fallen by the same amount

Question 4

1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

Answer

The beta of a portfolio of stocks is always smaller than the betas of any of the individual stocks.

If you found a stock with a zero historical beta and held it as the only stock in your portfolio, you would by definition have a riskless portfolio.

The beta coefficient of a stock is normally found by regressing past returns on a stock against past market returns. One could also construct a scatter diagram of returns on the stock versus those on the market, estimate the slope of the line of best fit, and use it as beta. However, this historical beta may differ from the beta that exists in the future.

The beta of a portfolio of stocks is always larger than the betas of any of the individual stocks.

It is theoretically possible for a stock to have a beta of 1.0. If a stock did have a beta of 1.0, then, at least in theory, its required rate of return would be equal to the risk-free (default-free) rate of return, rRF.

2 points

Question 5

1. Which is the best measure of risk for a single asset held in isolation, and which is the best measure for an asset held in a diversified portfolio?

Answer

Variance; correlation coefficient.

Standard deviation; correlation coefficient.

Beta; variance.

Coefficient of variation; beta.

Beta; beta.

2 points

Question 6

1. Bob has a $50,000 stock portfolio with a beta of 1.2, an expected return of 10.8%, and a standard deviation of 25%. Becky also has a $50,000 portfolio, but it has a beta of 0.8, an expected return of 9.2%, and a standard deviation that is also 25%. The correlation coefficient, r, between Bob’s and Becky’s portfolios is zero. If Bob and Becky marry and combine their portfolios, which of the following best describes their combined $100,000 portfolio?

Answer

The combined portfolio’s expected return will be less than the simple weighted average of the expected returns of the two individual portfolios, 10.0%.

The combined portfolio’s beta will be equal to a simple weighted average of the betas of the two individual portfolios, 1.0; its expected return will be equal to a simple weighted average of the expected returns of the two individual portfolios, 10.0%; and its standard deviation will be less than the simple average of the two portfolios’ standard deviations, 25%.

The combined portfolio’s expected return will be greater than the simple weighted average of the expected returns of the two individual portfolios, 10.0%.

The combined portfolio’s standard deviation will be greater than the simple average of the two portfolios’ standard deviations, 25%.

The combined portfolio’s standard deviation will be equal to a simple average of the two portfolios’ standard deviations, 25%.

2 points

Question 7

1. Stock X has a beta of 0.5 and Stock Y has a beta of 1.5. Which of the following statements must be true, according to the CAPM?

Answer

If you invest $50,000 in Stock X and $50,000 in Stock Y, your 2-stock portfolio would have a beta significantly lower than 1.0, provided the returns on the two stocks are not perfectly correlated.

Stock Y’s realized return during the coming year will be higher than Stock X’s return.

If the expected rate of inflation increases but the market risk premium is unchanged, the required returns on the two stocks should increase by the same amount.

Stock Y’s return has a higher standard deviation than Stock X.

If the market risk premium declines, but the risk-free rate is unchanged, Stock X will have a larger decline in its required return than will Stock Y.

Question 8

1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

Answer

A large portfolio of randomly selected stocks will always have a standard deviation of returns that is less than the standard deviation of a portfolio with fewer stocks, regardless of how the stocks in the smaller portfolio are selected.

Diversifiable risk can be reduced by forming a large portfolio, but normally even highly-diversified portfolios are subject to market (or systematic) risk.

A large portfolio of randomly selected stocks will have a standard deviation of returns that is greater than the standard deviation of a 1-stock portfolio if that one stock has a beta less than 1.0.

A large portfolio of stocks whose betas are greater than 1.0 will have less market risk than a single stock with a beta = 0.8.

If you add enough randomly selected stocks to a portfolio, you can completely eliminate all of the market risk from the portfolio.

2 points

Question 9

1. Stock A’s beta is 1.5 and Stock B’s beta is 0.5. Which of the following statements must be true about these securities? (Assume market equilibrium.)

Answer

When held in isolation, Stock A has more risk than Stock B.

Stock B must be a more desirable addition to a portfolio than A.

Stock A must be a more desirable addition to a portfolio than B.

The expected return on Stock A should be greater than that on B.

The expected return on Stock B should be greater than that on A.

2 points

Question 10

1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

Answer

A stock’s beta is less relevant as a measure of risk to an investor with a well-diversified portfolio than to an investor who holds only that one stock.

If an investor buys enough stocks, he or she can, through diversification, eliminate all of the diversifiable risk inherent in owning stocks. Therefore, if a portfolio contained all publicly traded stocks, it would be essentially riskless.

The required return on a firm’s common stock is, in theory, determined solely by its market risk. If the market risk is known, and if that risk is expected to remain constant, then no other information is required to specify the firm’s required return.

Portfolio diversification reduces the variability of returns (as measured by the standard deviation) of each individual stock held in a portfolio.

A security’s beta measures its non-diversifiable, or market, risk relative to that of an average stock.

2 points

Question 11

1. During the coming year, the market risk premium (rM − rRF), is expected to fall, while the risk-free rate, rRF, is expected to remain the same. Given this forecast, which of the following statements is CORRECT?

Answer

The required return will increase for stocks with a beta less than 1.0 and will decrease for stocks with a beta greater than 1.0.

The required return on all stocks will remain unchanged.

The required return will fall for all stocks, but it will fall more for stocks with higher betas.

The required return for all stocks will fall by the same amount.

The required return will fall for all stocks, but it will fall less for stocks with higher betas.

2 points

Question 12

1. Stock A has a beta of 0.8, Stock B has a beta of 1.0, and Stock C has a beta of 1.2. Portfolio P has equal amounts invested in each of the three stocks. Each of the stocks has a standard deviation of 25%. The returns on the three stocks are independent of one another (i.e., the correlation coefficients all equal zero). Assume that there is an increase in the market risk premium, but the risk-free rate remains unchanged. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

Answer

The required return of all stocks will remain unchanged since there was no change in their betas.

The required return on Stock A will increase by less than the increase in the market risk premium, while the required return on Stock C will increase by more than the increase in the market risk premium.

The required return on the average stock will remain unchanged, but the returns of riskier stocks (such as Stock C) will increase while the returns of safer stocks (such as Stock A) will decrease.

The required returns on all three stocks will increase by the amount of the increase in the market risk premium.

The required return on the average stock will remain unchanged, but the returns on riskier stocks (such as Stock C) will decrease while the returns on safer stocks (such as Stock A) will increase.

Question 13

1. Inflation, recession, and high interest rates are economic events that are best characterized as being

Answer

systematic risk factors that can be diversified away.

company-specific risk factors that can be diversified away.

among the factors that are responsible for market risk.

risks that are beyond the control of investors and thus should not be considered by security analysts or portfolio managers.

irrelevant except to governmental authorities like the Federal Reserve.

2 points

Question 14

1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

Answer

If a company with a high beta merges with a low-beta company, the best estimate of the new merged company’s beta is 1.0.

Logically, it is easier to estimate the betas associated with capital budgeting projects than the betas associated with stocks, especially if the projects are closely associated with research and development activities.

The beta of an “average stock,” which is also “the market beta,” can change over time, sometimes drastically.

If a newly issued stock does not have a past history that can be used for calculating beta, then we should always estimate that its beta will turn out to be 1.0. This is especially true if the company finances with more debt than the average firm.

During a period when a company is undergoing a change such as increasing its use of leverage or taking on riskier projects, the calculated historical beta may be drastically different from the beta that will exist in the future.

2 points

Question 15

1. Which of the following is NOT a potential problem when estimating and using betas, i.e., which statement is FALSE?

Answer

The fact that a security or project may not have a past history that can be used as the basis for calculating beta.

Sometimes, during a period when the company is undergoing a change such as toward more leverage or riskier assets, the calculated beta will be drastically different from the “true” or “expected future” beta.

The beta of an “average stock,” or “the market,” can change over time, sometimes drastically.

Sometimes the past data used to calculate beta do not reflect the likely risk of the firm for the future because conditions have changed.

All of the statements above are true.

2 points

Question 16

1. If a stock’s dividend is expected

to grow at a constant rate of 5% a year, which of the following statements is CORRECT? The stock is in equilibrium.

Answer

The expected return on the stock is 5% a year.

The stock’s dividend yield is 5%.

The price of the stock is expected to decline in the future.

The stock’s required return must be equal to or less than 5%.

The stock’s price one year from now is expected to be 5% above the current price.

2 points

Question 17

1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT, assuming stocks are in equilibrium?

Answer

The dividend yield on a constant growth stock must equal its expected total return minus its expected capital gains yield.

Assume that the required return on a given stock is 13%. If the stock’s dividend is growing at a constant rate of 5%, its expected dividend yield is 5% as well.

A stock’s dividend yield can never exceed its expected growth rate.

A required condition for one to use the constant growth model is that the stock’s expected growth rate exceeds its required rate of return.

Other things held constant, the higher a company’s beta coefficient, the lower its required rate of return.

Question 18

1. Stocks X and Y have the following data. Assuming the stock market is efficient and the stocks are in equilibrium, which of

the following statements is CORRECT?

X Y

Price $30 $30

Expected growth (constant) 6% 4%

Required return 12% 10%

Answer

Stock X has a higher dividend yield than Stock Y.

Stock Y has a higher dividend yield than Stock X.

One year from now, Stock X’s price is expected to be higher than Stock Y’s price.

Stock X has the higher expected year-end dividend.

Stock Y has a higher capital gains yield.

2 points

Question 19

1. Companies can issue different classes of common stock. Which of the following statements concerning stock classes is CORRECT?

Answer

All common stocks fall into one of three classes: A, B, and C.

All common stocks, regardless of class, must have the same voting rights.

All firms have several classes of common stock.

All common stock, regardless of class, must pay the same dividend.

Some class or classes of common stock are entitled to more votes per share than other classes.

2 points

Question 20

1. The required returns of Stocks X and Y are rX = 10% and rY = 12%. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

Answer

If the market is in equilibrium, and if Stock Y has the lower expected dividend yield, then it must have the higher expected growth rate.

If Stock Y and Stock X have the same dividend yield, then Stock Y must have a lower expected capital gains yield than Stock X.

If Stock X and Stock Y have the same current dividend and the same expected dividend growth rate, then Stock Y must sell for a higher price.

The stocks must sell for the same price.

Stock Y must have a higher dividend yield than Stock X.

2 points

Question 21

1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

Answer

The constant growth model is often appropriate for evaluating start-up companies that do not have a stable history of growth but are expected to reach stable growth within the next few years.

If a stock has a required rate of return rs = 12% and its dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 5%, this implies that the stock’s dividend yield is also 5%.

The stock valuation model, P0 = D1/(rs – g), can be used to value firms whose dividends are expected to decline at a constant rate, i.e., to grow at a negative rate.

The price of a stock is the present value of all expected future dividends, discounted at the dividend growth rate.

The constant growth model cannot be used for a zero growth stock, where the dividend is expected to remain constant over time.

2 points

Question 22

1. Stocks A and B have the following data. Assuming the stock market is efficient and the stocks are in equilibrium, which of the following statements is CORRECT?

A B

Required return 10% 12%

Market price $25 $40

Expected growth 7% 9%

Answer

These two stocks should have the same price.

These two stocks must have the same dividend yield.

These two stocks should have the same expected return.

These two stocks must have the same expected capital gains yield.

These two stocks must have the same expected year-end dividend.

Question 23

1. The preemptive right is important to shareholders because it

Answer

allows managers to buy additional shares below the current market price.

will result in higher dividends per share.

is included in every corporate charter.

protects the current shareholders against a dilution of their ownership interests.

protects bondholders, and thus enables the firm to issue debt with a relatively low interest rate.

2 points

Question 24

1. Two constant growth stocks are in equilibrium, have the same price, and have the same required rate of return. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

Answer

The two stocks must have the same dividend per share.

If one stock has a higher dividend yield, it must also have a lower dividend growth rate.

If one stock has a higher dividend yield, it must also have a higher dividend growth rate.

The two stocks must have the same dividend growth rate.

The two stocks must have the same dividend yield.

2 points

Question 25

1. The expected return on Natter Corporation’s stock is 14%. The stock’s dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 8%, and it currently sells for $50 a share. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

Answer

The stock’s dividend yield is 7%.

The stock’s dividend yield is 8%.

The current dividend per share is $4.00.

The stock price is expected to be $54 a share one year from now.

The stock price is expected to be $57 a share one year from now.

2 points

Question 26

1. If in the opinion of a given investor a stock’s expected return exceeds its required return, this suggests that the investor thinks

Answer

the stock is experiencing supernormal growth.

the stock should be sold.

the stock is a good buy.

management is probably not trying to maximize the price per share.

dividends are not likely to be declared.

2 points

Question 27

1. Stocks A and B have the following data. Assuming the stock market is efficient and the stocks are in equilibrium, which of the following statements is CORRECT?

A B

Price $ 25 $40

Expected growth 7% 9%

Expected return 10% 12%

Answer

The two stocks should have the same expected dividend.

The two stocks could not be in equilibrium with the numbers given in the question.

A’s expected dividend is $0.50.

B’s expected dividend is $0.75.

A’s expected dividend is $0.75 and B’s expected dividend is $1.20.

2 points

Question 28

1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

Answer

If a company has two classes of common stock, Class A and Class B, the stocks may pay different dividends, but under all state charters the two classes must have the same voting rights.

The preemptive right gives stockholders the right to approve or disapprove of a merger between their company and some other company.

The preemptive right is a provision in the corporate charter that gives common stockholders the right to purchase (on a pro rata basis) new issues of the firm’s common stock.

The stock valuation model, P0= D1/(rs – g), cannot be used for firms that have negative growth rates.

The stock valuation model, P0= D1/(rs – g), can be used only for firms whose growth rates exceed their required returns.

Question 29

1. For a stock to be in equilibrium, that is, for there to be no long-term pressure for its price to depart from its current level, then

Answer

the expected future return must be less than the most recent past realized return.

The past realized return must be equal to the expected return during the same period.

the required return must equal the realized return in all periods.

the expected return must be equal to both the required future return and the past realized return.

the expected future returns must be equal to the required return.

2 points

Question 30

1. If markets are in equilibrium, which of the following conditions will exist?

Answer

Each stock’s expected return should equal its realized return as seen by the marginal investor.

Each stock’s expected return should equal its required return as seen by the marginal investor.

All stocks should have the same expected return as seen by the marginal investor.

The expected and required returns on stocks and bonds should be equal.

All stocks should have the same realized return during the coming year.