Evaluating leadership Ethics

Part 1

Ethics can be defined as a system of moral principles that influences how people make decisions on what is right or wrong. Ethics helps to guide through different dilemmas, such as making moral decisions or how to live a good life. Philosophers attach different definitions of ethic that are divided into three theories that include metaethics, normative, and applied ethics. Metaethics deals refer to ethics as moral judgment and analyze the origins and meaning of ethical principles. Normative ethics involves the content of good reviews and the criteria to define what is right or wrong (Myers Jr, 2015). Applied ethics includes discussion on a controversial topic, animal rights, and capital punishment.

Ethical leaders are different from just leaders. This kind of leaders focuses on what is right and wrong. Leaders without ethics follows rules and guidelines without critical thinking. However, ethical leaders possess some difference where they use moral values to make decisions and just following the existing guidelines. The ability to make change for ethical leaders is based on the moral values that checks the greater good of the organization. Leadership can be described as the ability to carry the vision for others and having an impression for them. Leadership inspires others to make better decisions at their levels and follow the laid-out vision. An ethical leader has good communication skills to influence the team in a positive way according to his or her leadership style.

Ethical educational leaders help an organization to grow and overcome daily challenges within an organization. Ethical leaders foster trust among employees and leaders in a visionary perspective that defines the boundaries of right and wrong. Ethical leaders conduct themselves and make decisions aligned with organizational ethics. Ethical leaders’ think for the good of others in the organization. Ethical educational leaders consider the good of the teachers, students, parents, and other partners in their decision-making process. The traits of ethical leaders create a role model for others to follow by following the codes of conducts in the organization. This kind of leaders understands the act of service and fosters goodwill in an organization (NORIEGA & DREW, 2013). Also, such leaders hold sufficient power that supports others and not misusing people in their authority. Ethical educational leaders know how to deal with people with an understanding of what is the right thing and making quality decisions.

An ethical leader creates an environment based on ethics and morality. He or she demands ethical behaviours from different people in the organization. All activities performed in the school should comply with given guidelines on ethics. Codes of ethics are core to school operations. His relationship with subordinate leaders is based on mutual respect and self-discipline. Trust is critical for such leaders built on honesty and ethical actions. Fairness and equity are practised in all facets of the organization (NORIEGA & DREW, 2013). These conducts motivate teachers and students to perform better in their areas.

Ethical educational leaders should have behaviours that reflect their understanding of ethics and morality. The actions done by ethical leaders depict their understanding of what is right and wrong. These kinds of leaders have critical thinking abilities that allow them to make decisions in the hardest cases. Also, the ability to have moral reasoning is improved to ensure all stakeholders in the organization benefit from the problem. Every leader should be comfortable explaining his decisions and the values that drive his actions. Understanding the diversity of value inclines the leader to create standard codes of ethics to guide behaviours in the organization (NORIEGA & DREW, 2013). A leader should know his obligation to achieve a better place in leadership and assess his responses are alignment to his goals.

An ethical leader can think deeply concerning moral questions. When confronted by a right versus right conflict of responsibilities, ethical leaders should be ready to fail in some ways as they miss in others. Each ethical leader understands that no single decision is right in this world. Every decision will have people affected by its effects. Having a guideline to make the ethical choice is essential for a leader to avoid taking or those that fail to benefit the organization. The public interest that overpowers self is crucial for a moral leader. He or she thinks for the good of others over his own needs. Educational leaders understand the importance of different stakeholder to improve their reputation. Offering others a chance to participate in decision making provides a room to make ethical actions (NORIEGA & DREW, 2013). An educational leader recognizes the talents of both teachers and students to offer them opportunities to excel in their giftings.

Part 2

The changes made through a school tax referendum requires an ethical decision-making plan to ensure minimal damage and conserve the rights of the people. The four questions framework developed by Badaracco in 1992 will guide my decision in this scenario. The four questions help to assess different ways of resolving right-versus-right dilemmas. As a leader of a district school, I have four proposals that seem right, and I should choose one.

Which course of action will do the best and the least harm?

This first question analyzes the consequences or results of the proposal. As a leader, I should choose the one that caters for the greatest need of the stakeholders. In this case, I would go with the second proposal that eliminates transportation services. This proposal will only affect the driver who will lose his job and the students who have been using the busing services. However, other cheap means of transportation exist, and students can resolve to those means. The other three proposals seem to affect a wide array of people, including their families. For example, reducing the number of teachers in the school will cost them a livelihood leading to financial stress even to their children.

Which alternative best serves other’s rights, including shareholders’ rights?

This second question focuses on individual rights, where Budaracco (1992) considers individual rights to life, liberty, and their seeking for happiness. Other reasons include respect, safety, and fairness. Listing the rights of each stakeholder can be difficult. In this scenario, we focus on teachers, students, parents, and school partners. The first proposal seems to take away the rights of some teachers and students where teachers are eliminated, and students are taught in large classes. The second option takes some liberties from the driver and the students. However, transportation services are not demanded by the law. The third option requires parents to pay additional fees for additional activities such as games. Thus, the choice is not fair to the parents and to the students whose parents cannot afford the extra costs. The fourth option removes programs that benefit gifted students since the law does not require them. However, the talented students will suffer, and their freedom to participate in the programs will be eliminated. Therefore, none of these options serves other’s rights, but they differ in magnitude. The second options does not affect people’s rights in a huge way compared to others.

What plan can I live with, which is consistent with fundamental values and commitments?

This question assesses the conscience and value. The leader has to make a choice that he or she will have a free conscience, protect the reputation of the school, and consider the long-term consequences. Accordingly, the second proposal for a change in the school will not leave a negative reputation of the school, the values of the people will be reserved, and long-term consequences are not significant. The second option will allow students to use their means of transportation. This proposal will have minimal impact on the future of the school or students (Christensen & Boneck, 2010). The rest of the options seems to affect people’s lives and impact their livelihood for the long-term.

Which course of action is feasible in the world as it is?

This question assesses the actions that are better taken to preserve the survival of the organization. The limited financial access is restricted and calls for an immediate response, as indicated in the four proposals. The most available work will support the changes in financial access and should preserve the organization. The second option is feasible in reducing the expenses in the district budget and does not distort much of the school program and activities (Christensen & Boneck, 2010). Therefore, the feasible option is eliminating the transportation services from the school.

The four questions, as guided by Budaracco, are used consistently and dependently to promote an ethical decision. Without one of the question considerations, a leader can make a skewed decision that serves a few interests and fails to consider the entire organization and its stakeholders. In this regard, the assessment shows that the second option is the best action for an ethical leader in making. The conclusion has been achieved through a balanced act of solving an ethical dilemma of the existing issue (Christensen & Boneck, 2010). The ethical ideal option to reduce expenditure for the upcoming school year is eliminating transportation services for the high school.


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Cybersecurity Risks

Introduction: Cybersecurity Risks

Today, the growth of the internet and increased technology use has brought an increase in cybersecurity risks. The advancement in technology has given malicious actors a chance to undertake different criminal activities in cyberspace. Various organizations and individuals are conducting the effort to secure cyberspace. Cyber-attacks are an ongoing problem in the current world of technology. Initiatives to curb this challenge are growing and expanding where individuals and corporates are investing in achieving secure cyberspace. Cybersecurity should be a concern of everyone, not just the IT department in an organization. The realities of cybersecurity risks will be analyzed in this paper and how legal, ethics, and compliance professionals can overcome the challenge of cyber insecurity in their organization.

Current realities of cybersecurity

Sophisticated attackers using advanced technology are increasing in the webspace. Businesses and consumers are aware of the need for cybersecurity today. The understanding of why they need for cybersecurity in needed has spread across every value chain. Unlike five years ago, where attackers were thought to be focused and elaborate, the attacks are broad with new and intelligent forms of malware. Increased types of malware and their complexity are significant threats to businesses of all sizes. The malware self-propagates are making it hard to detect them using the essential detection tools (Samtani, Chinn, Larson, & Chen, 2016). The hackers can use new techniques to hide the malware or the threat in an encrypted method. Malware can look like regular traffic because cyber attackers can control them and mimic daily traffic. Therefore, the traditional malware detectors and security tools are no longer viable (Nurse, Radanliev, Creese & De Roure, 2018). The attacker is now enrolled in large groups, with training and resources at their disposal. In this regard, cybersecurity is fundamental in business operations using the updated tools, and hiring experts in cybersecurity might help in solving the problem.

Different ways of monetizing cybercrime exist today than before. Hackers are not stealing data and selling it only. Attackers are destroying systems and attaining information that can devastate businesses in starting fake news that messes with the company’s reputation. Malicious competitors may use cyber attackers to destroy a company’s business systems, such as bringing down the supply chain systems. Cybercriminals have an extensive value in the technology space and take pride in their financial growth as hackers have taken their jobs seriously today, unlike five years ago. Organizations should view the need for cybersecurity in the same seriousness by investing in the best tools. Five years ago, cybercrime used viruses and disabled computers to carry out their attack (Moraes, 2019). Today, the high speed in technology, increased techniques, and the profit in cybercrime, organizations, are at a higher risk of attacks.

Organizations and individuals have widely accepted the realities of cyber-attacks. The damaging that the cyber insecurities bring on businesses cannot be ignored. Increased investment in proper security tools that can predict and respond to threats effectively is ongoing in companies. Cybersecurity systems are expensive to purchase, install, and manage in business. Small businesses tend to outsource services from IT service providers who are well versant with the problems. With the right tools and support, an organization will maintain an effective response to any arising risk. Good customer experience requires increased cybersecurity for online purchases of products (Samtani et al., 2016). Therefore, every business should place a sound security system that will retain its customers and promote smooth operation.

The skill gap still exists because of the new and problematic development of cyber-attacks. The demand for secure cyberspace has gone up very fast, leaving the IT experts with a knowledge gap. The workload to respond to the attacks and keeping businesses free from threats is a difficult task. Higher security experts are needed in businesses. Too much time is taken by the companies in the effort to remedy the damage caused by the attacks due to the limited knowledge or skills in executing the appropriate preventive measures (Moraes, 2019). Lack of security experts is a persisting reality in business today. Continuous training and adapting to the changes in cybersecurity is needed in all levels of companies.

Legal, ethics and compliance professionals

In the past, legal, ethics, and compliance professionals were not included in the cybersecurity space. In most organizations, these professionals were left behind when discussing matters of cyber securities in the organizations. Organization’s leaders got concerned after a report in 2014 illustrated that 75% of the legal, ethical, and compliance officers are left behind on cybersecurity matters. These professionals are vital in building secure cyberspace in organizations. These professionals can overcome the existing barriers to secure their organizations (Asbury, McClelland, Torgerson, Vincent, & Boling, 2018). The role that these professional play in ensuring their organizations are cyber secure are numerous and cannot be overlooked.

Legal professionals have the universal laws to protect and carry reasonable measures in safeguarding data in their organization. Significant barriers to achieving cybersecurity in an organization can be made by legal professionals’ ability to enact contracts and regulatory roles in protecting confidential data. Companies are struggling to meet the dynamic laws, regulations, privacy standards, and new liabilities related to a data breach (Asbury et al., 2018). Lawyers and other legal professionals engage in continuous training and learning to become conversant with the new laws, regulations, and policies created to fit the advancing technological needs.

Centralized discovery center and data storage are crucial for legal professionals in the effort to break barriers and make their organizations secure. The concern arises when an organization distributes ESI to different vendors and law firms. The risk of a data breach can be seen in such activities. As a result, a centralized data system and management allows a single platform that controls the organization’s data. The information shared can be coded correctly and protected by the right confidential provisions. The data can be encrypted for single use to avoid miscoding for other litigation matters (Asbury et al., 2018). A centralized system keeps the information secure by allowing the organization’s team to manage the access and use of sensitive data across different law firms and vendors. This technique helps to solve the barriers of making an organization cyber-secure.

Moving to the cloud is crucial for legal professionals because it increases security benefits for the organization. Optimizing information and managing data are some of the benefits of adopting a cloud for judicial officers. Cloud limits the process of importing and exporting data from one system to another. The data can move seamlessly without a third party’s intervention. Cloud allows different activities such as data collection, processing, case assessment, review, and production to be conducted in the cloud (Asbury et al., 2018). The limited transferring of information from one vendor to another can be risky for data breaching.

Security audit in the organization is crucial in improving cybersecurity. Businesses are adopting security protocols that require to be audited often to mitigate any security risks. Having a data protection contract for employees and other stakeholders is crucial when improving cybersecurity in a corporate. The agreement allows the organization to place the burden of cybersecurity upon every individual affiliated with the business. Security assessment tools are adopted in a company to ensure protocols adherence by employees and associates. The audit allows identifying the various loopholes existing in the company needing to be resolved (Talesh, 2018). Also, it raises insights for decision making concerning cybersecurity, such as training employees and investing in new security tools.

Legal professionals are using document protection and not only device encryption. The security at the documents level controls the access of e-documents and promotes a secure sharing of information within the organization. This process mitigates insider threats that cyber attackers use in most cases. Document encryption enables quick detection and response to insider threats (Talesh, 2018). Any technique gives quick alerts to any unauthorized user trying to access the documents.

Ethics professionals have a role in educating employees in different departments dealing with data on confidentiality, consumer ethics, and incident responses. Most IT professionals have the skills to perform their tasks but lack the ethical understanding that can attack the company’s litigation problems. Confidentiality is crucial for each employee in an organization. When dealing with sensitive matters, professionals should not just open or share information because they can access it from the system. Employees who bring their devices to work should be given an in-depth training of the confidentiality needed and the risk they have towards their data when connecting to the network (Talesh, 2018). Also, an organization should understand its role in protecting its customers from cyber attack issues. More so, alerting the consumers of a potential breach is an ethical issue to be considered. Ethical professionals play a huge role in enlightening the organization on its roles and responsibilities in achieving an ethical operation when considering cybersecurity.

Communication between clients, employees, and partners should be controlled using ethical standards. Personal information regarding employees should be kept safe to promote confidentiality, including medical information, health insurance, and payrolls should be protected using advanced security tools. Ethics professionals should help in drafting an ethics code that governs issues concerning cybersecurity and data protection. Trust among employees should be maintained to avoid leaking information to hackers. Some ethical issues can cost the company’s reputation and attract severe lawsuits. Client safety and well-being should be assured using the right ethical considerations on the cyberspace. Cyberethics supports transparency when a risk is detected on cybersecurity. Customers or clients should be informed about data breaches as early as possible to create transparency on the tendency of their sensitive information to be stolen (Talesh, 2018). Cyberethics should be distinguished from other regulations to mark emphasis. Since cyber ethics have not been established uniformly, organizations require skilled professionals to aid them in creating necessary policies to instill them on employees.

Compliance is crucial in every organization because it ensures the IT department is following all the laws, standards, and regulations concerning cybersecurity. Without an agreement, the organization may think they have met all requirements, not until an audit reveals some vulnerabilities that can be used by attackers. Also, lack of compliance can lead to huge penalties and lawsuits that an organization can avoid. Compliance helps to create a cybersecurity culture where every individual is aware of the need to follow protocols. This approach ensures that guidelines are followed to the letter, and standards are upheld to minimize the likelihood of cyber insecurity. Common barriers to a cyber-secure organization can be clicking phishing emails and opening hackers’ documents. The implemented framework in the organization should be industry-specific to ensure feasibility and ensure that the right standards of cybersecurity are appropriate. Frequent evaluation should be done to ensure compliance and proper exercise of the guidelines (Morrow, 2018). Continuous improvement is another approach to ensure all aspects of cybersecurity standards are met in the company. Growth raises the standards making it hard for hackers to have a successful attack.


Cybersecurity risk is high in today’s life. Corporates and small businesses are investing in high technology security tools to protect their operations, reputation, clients, and marketing. The effects of cyber attacks are enormous and cannot be ignored. The complex nature of tools used by the attackers in the current age makes it hard to respond to the cyber-attacks. Proper monitoring allows an organization to prepare to mitigate the risk or prevent it before it happens. Legal, ethical, and compliance professionals have been influential in overcoming the everyday challenges of achieving a cyber-secure space.


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How to write a literature review

How to write a literature review

What is a literature review? 

A literature review is a scholarly paper that explores different publications within a specific discipline or area of study within a set timeframe. The exploration focuses on the substantive findings, theoretical frameworks, and used methodologies. This type of writing requires a student to read and analyze different peer-reviewed sources that relates to the main subject. A literature review must include a summary of the publications and a synthesis of the documents. The summary offers an overview of the key points in the publication and a synthesis is a re-organization of the information in the different publications to form a unique meaning that points to the main subject. This paper is part of a dissertation or thesis and sometimes can be given as a standalone assignment.

Purpose of a literature review

The main reason of writing a literature review is to offer a summary of the existing study of the subject and synthesis their ideas without adding personal opinions or additional information. It helps the writer to understand the trends and the principles that previous authors given focus on the same subject. A writer becomes aware of the areas that have been studies on the subject to identify the existing gap that guides his or her study. A literature review reveals the relationship between different ideas on the topic, major points of controversy, and suggests questions to drive further research.

Literature review format

The length of a literature review is indicated in the assignment details. If the instructor failed to indicate, it should occupy 15%-30% of the entire paper. Also, the assignment details from the instructor should be specific on whether the format should be APA, MLA, or Chicago among others. The instructor is useful in offers the specific details of a literature review such as the number of sources, inclusion of subheadings, personal critique, and whether to include the background information of the sources.  See an example of instructors’ detail: https://proficientwritershub.com/literature-review-357-3/

If you want to format your paper in APA style, then follow these rules:

  • Use 1-inch page margins.
  • Unless provided with other instructions, use double-spacing throughout the whole text.
  • Make sure you choose a readable font. The preferred font for APA papers is Times New Roman set to 12-point size.
  • Include a header at the top of every page (in capital letters). The page header must be a shortened version of your essay title and limited to 50 characters, including spacing and punctuation.
  • Put page numbers in the upper right corner of every page.
  • When shaping your literature review outline in APA, don’t forget to include a title page. This page should include the paper’s name, the author’s name, and the institutional affiliation. Your title must be typed with upper and lowercase letters and be centered in the upper part of the page; use no more than 12 words and avoid using abbreviations and any useless words.


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Collection of Data – Questionnaires and Instruments & Sampling

Collection of Data – Questionnaires and Instruments & Sampling


  1. Sampling is the process of selecting units such as organizations or people from a targeted population. The results acquired from the selected units will be used to form a general conclusion. Sampling process follows various stages such as defining the population, setting a frame, specifying the sampling method, determining the size, implementing the plan, data collection, and selection of data.

Two types of sampling includes probability and non-probability. Probability is mostly used due to its increased chances of obtaining samples that are representative of the targeted population. Probability sampling methods includes random and stratified sampling. The nonprobability sampling methods includes the quota, purposive, and convenience sampling (Levy, & Lemeshow, 2013).

  1. Mode is one of the central tendency measure that provides the nominal data. In a qualitative data collection, for example, researching on the prevalence of suicide among black-Americans. The mode as a central tendency measure calculates the frequent value of the data set. In this case, a large number of the respondent in the sample said that 57% of black-American men commit suicide. In this case, the mode is 57% (Healey, 2014).
  2. The statistical test of dispersion of a sample data illustrates the stretch or the squeezing of data. Standard deviation is one of the statistical tools used to measure the distribution of the sampled data (Healey, 2014).
  3. Discrete and continuous distribution are the two types that can be used to present sampled data. In continuous distribution, the valuable can take any value. For example, the age of the black-American committing suicide is between the age of 16 and 35. In this case, a black committing suicide can be of any age between the given values.

In contrary, the discrete distribution is where the variable can just take a specified value. For example, the gender of the black American committing suicide will have a discrete distribution because it must be either male or female. Therefore, the number of females who commit suicide can be zero of a specific number, which is same with males (Levy, & Lemeshow, 2013).

  1. There are two types of questions used in preparing a questionnaire. Open-ended and close-ended question. The open-ended questions are included in the questionnaire with the aim of giving the respondent the chance to express their opinions. The questions do not have a set of predetermined opinion for the responded to choose. The second type is the closed ended questions where respondents are restricted to choose from given choices that are premeditated by the interviewer. The questionnaire construction have no rules of the maximum or minimum suggestion of the choices. The interviewer offers a range of choices depending on the nature of the research and the extent of the needed answers. Some of the closed question may have a yes or no choice. Other tests the magnitude of a certain feeling, emotion, or attitude toward a certain element (Doody, & Noonan, 2013).
  2. The most commonly used types of interviews are face-to-face, phone, group, and email interview. Face-to-face interview is where the respondent and the interviewer are in a single location where one asks questions where the other one answers. The phone interview is where the medium of communication between the interviewee and the interviewer is the phone. The email type of interview is where the interviewer send a document to the respondent to answer the questions and send them at a predetermined date or time (Doody, & Noonan, 2013).




Levy, P. S., & Lemeshow, S. (2013). Sampling of populations: methods and applications. John Wiley & Sons.

Healey, J. F. (2014). Statistics: A tool for social research. Cengage Learning.

Doody, O., & Noonan, M. (2013). Preparing and conducting interviews to collect data. Nurse Researcher20(5), 28-32.

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An argumentative essay

An argumentative paper includes an introduction, body, and conclusion. One need to discuss both sides of the argument then take one side in the conclusion. The writer should offer supporting evidence or why he or she beliefs in that side of the argument. Here is an example:

Are drones dangerous or harmless?

The drones have become a common feature in many arenas in the world. Drones are aircraft that can fly without direct control of human beings. They are said to be autonomous and are monitored by a remote pilot. Since the drones are seen to be self-reliance, the human influence cannot be overlooked. Most of the drones have video cameras and transmit real-time images to the operator on the ground. The operator controlling the drone on the ground receives the images on the computer. He or she gains the view as if sitting in the cockpit and flies the plane accordingly. Many people have used this capability of the drones to come up with video cameras to capture images from the sky. Some studies argue that the drones are harmless while others argue that they are dangerous (Gregory, 2011).

The government of the U.S views drone technology to be very hazardous to the general population. People who use drones to take those wonderful pictures or video in a tourist field are usually required to have permits for their use. Without permission, people are likely to be prosecuted because the drones are seen to be risky for the safety of other people or properties. People using drones are seen to have a hidden agenda on the activities. The concerns of the security agencies about the safety of the public may be legitimate. The drones require keen control and observation because they can easily crash and cause damages such as injuries or destruction of properties. A glance at it can be awesome but a minute mistake can cause loss of control causing serious damages (Brunstetter, & Braun, 2011).

Additionally, drones should be used for the military purposes by individuals who have knowledge on the aviation skills. Moreover, when drones are used for commercial use, they are used by people without the aviation skills. Some take the drones in the football match stadiums to take a good video. The crash or losing control of the drone in an arena can cause injuries to the audiences or death. Drone are harmful in congested places or public buildings (Gregory, 2011).

On the other hand, some people argue that drones are harmless. These arguments compare the drones with a vehicle or a bicycle that has a certain percentage of danger when used by untrained people. When a car is driven on a highway, it can cause severe damage when controlled by an unprofessional person. Some people may use drones for professional purposes while others for recreational goals. However, during these operations, people have to practice and make use of the safety guidelines. Thus, drones can be used while observing safety precautions. For instance, drones should not be flown too close to airplane paths or in a highly populated place. Also, the operators should be trained on its use first before taking it out to the public or in a private sphere. Therefore, the drones can be said to be harmless when licensed to people with operational skills (Brunstetter, & Braun, 2011).

The line to distinguish between the registered commercial drones and the hobbyist is thin. In this case, the security agencies are encouraging a regulated production of drones. The danger posed by the small drones cannot be overemphasized. The US government have requested for monitoring in the airspace that will limit the drones from accessing a certain area. The security agencies are requesting for installation of GPS on every drone to control them from flying above the restricted height or in areas such as airports and barracks. Additionally, the drones should be given licenses by the aviation authority. The coalition between the small drones and planes in the sky is possible which is dangerous. Some commercial use of drones’ incudes monitoring an area such as a plantation or business premises. The control of such use should be given to a trained person to minimize the danger of flying the drone to high and from crushing on a person (Brunstetter, & Braun, 2011).

Drones should not be seen as a menace while they can be beneficial to many people. Moreover, the underlying message should be that all operators should be trained on where to use the drones and how to use them. With the recent drone codes that regulate them, they can cause little or no harm at all. Some of the regulation guideline requirement is to ensure that no damages or accidents will occur. This requirement applies to other machine controlled by human beings. For example, “make sure you can see your drone at all times and do not fly higher than 400 feet.” This precaution ensures that the drone will not interfere with planes and the operator can trace its presence (Runciman, 2014).

In some cases, people can purchase small drones from the supermarket and stores. Some of them are flown in the backyards, packing lots, and open fields. The drones do not pose any lethal threats to the public. In some countries, drones are regulated by the aviation sector using aviation rules, which does not differentiate the size and the purpose of the drone. The larger and professional drones should be controlled by the aviation rules because they can cause serious damages. However, the small drones that are used for recreational purposes, especially by children, pose no threat. In this regard, the drones are harmless because the fatality rate is minimal or zero. Since the individual controlling the drone have uninterrupted control, it can be said to pose no problems (Runciman, 2014).

Some of the alleged claims of the danger of the drones have not been proven in a real situation. The claim on the crushing is hypothetical. People know that anything that flies is supposed to come on the ground eventually. The plane tends to crash, and they have never been banned from flying. This hypothesis does it mean that every drone in the world will crash on some people or properties. Human being tends to encounter accidents in their daily activities. One incident of a drone that causes injuries does mean it will happen every day. The airport crew claims that the drones will collide with manned aircraft. This claim has not been reported on its occurrence up to date. Other claims include intrusion of a person’s or a barrack’s privacy. The owner of the drone must be malicious to think of flying a drone into someone’s home or military barrack. This case applies to any other use of gadget to take pictures or video that violates one’s privacy. The laws are specific to such cases. Therefore, on all the allegations, there lack a factual report or consistent dangers posed by the unmanned aircraft (Runciman, 2014).

In conclusion, drones are harmless. The rising technology will make them more feasible even in highly populated places. The danger posed by the drone can be compared to that of a bicycle. Before the population becomes familiar with the drones, speculations and allegations will arise. These speculations will be proven null as people become familiar with its technology. Drones can be considered harmless. Thus, people should be trained on their use to ensure that safety is ensured and they do not cause fatal injuries.





Brunstetter, D., & Braun, M. (2011). The implications of drones on the just war tradition. Ethics & International Affairs, 25(03), 337-358.

Gregory, D. (2011). From a view to a kill: Drones and late modern war. Theory, Culture & Society, 28(7-8), 188-215.

Runciman, B. (2014). Judgment on Drones Robots Ethical Decision Dilemmas. ITNOW, 56(3), 6-9.




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 Mass Media Developments and its Influence on the American Culture

Mass Media Developments and its Influence on the American Culture

Mass media is a collection of different kinds of technologies that reach a large number of people via mass communication. Mass media is a term used to describe all types of institutions that share information to large number of audience. The institutions of mass media differ in scope, method, and cultural context in their information sharing. Mass media is a criterion of industrialization in a country. The most industrialized countries contains advanced and various types of mass media. Mass media covers news, advertisement, music, opinion, internet, prints, audio recording, and other mass communication. However, mass media has gained major changes in the 20th century.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the mass media comprised of curious periodicals and newspapers. The world relied on the newspapers and magazines. The main events, news, and different types of information could be accessed through the two media prints. At the end of the 20th century, the mass media consisted of televisions, radio, internet, and an array of media prints. The changes were numerous and by the end of the last century, people could communicate all over the world immediately. The breaking news could be accessed live through the television (Quint, 2001).

Radio was the first change that dominated in the mass media in the 40’s. People could access news faster in comparison to newspaper. The World War II was in progress and people could desire to acquire the news more frequently. Ten years later television dominated the mass communication industry. People could see moving pictures of what was happening unlike the newspapers and radios. The introduction of the space travel gave the television power to communicate events in the whole world when the communication satellites were put in the orbit. The satellites gave birth to 24-hrs news stations that could project various effects happening all over the world. At the end of the century, a newborn media was born called the Internet. The internet created platforms where people and information could be linked together through computer terminals (Quint, 2001).

At the beginning of the century, the print technology was very slow and knowledge could spread slowly to the population. This type of media influenced the culture of the Americans where they could no longer rely on teachers and storytellers to acquire knowledge. The evolution of radios in the American society brought a quick access to information. The news updates became frequent and people could listen to world events through the radio. The culture of educational system was changed by use of radio in the classrooms, which later faced rejections. People could gather in evening for the purpose of entertainment from music or radio programs. radio has a power of influencing people’s opinions on the world, religious, and political views (Quint, 2001).

The information age that started with television, which led to computers, satellites, and smartphones has various effects on the American culture. This era led to access of global information in the world. People came linked together by use of internet and sharing of information was quick and easy. People started seeing themselves as equal because the poor and the rich could access same information through these platforms. People became independent on choosing which platform to use in accessing information. Communication became instantaneous and people could no longer wait for letter to be transported and be delivered (McCombs, 2013).

Media convergence is the aspect of merging of content through various media types. For example, using the internet to read an e-newspaper or an e-book. Also, media convergence is interpreted as the a single corporation owning and operating different types of media platforms. For example, an institutions that operates a television channel, radio, station, newspaper, and a blog page. Media convergence has given employers a chance to utilize their few employees maximally. Also, the population can use one media platform to acquire another. This allows good circulation of capital by using two media platforms at the same time. Also, uniformity in the information portrayed in the different platforms gives the audience reliability of the information. However, this aspect may reduce diverse ideas and opinion on an event when most channels broadcast same information (McCombs, 2013).

Media literacy is an important tool or skill to media consumption in many ways. It gives an individual ability to filter the false information from the true and relevant opinions. A person acquires empowerment on the type of information being distributed. Media literacy gives the American population the power to make wise media choices that translates to health mental, emotional, and physical state. It allows children to acquire a global culture and thrive in the universal activities. It equips the adults the skills to discuss the media aspects with their children including expectations and consequences. It gives the audience the control on the influences of media on their lives. They limit their chances of becoming vulnerable to negative influences of media messages (García-Avilés, Kaltenbrunner, & Meier, 2014).

Media literacy gives the population the necessary tools to acquire the right characters, attitudes, and personalities from films, entertainment, and educational programs. It offers students an opportunity to be wise consumers, managers, and responsible producers of opinions. It opens the mind of the audience to the reality in the media environment. Finally, it gives people critical thinking skills in interpreting media contents (García-Avilés, Kaltenbrunner, & Meier, 2014).


García-Avilés, J. A., Kaltenbrunner, A., & Meier, K. (2014). Media convergence revisited:           Lessons learned on newsroom integration in Austria, Germany and Spain. Journalism         Practice8(5), 573-584.

McCombs, M. (2013). Setting the agenda: The mass media and public opinion. John Wiley &      Sons.

Quint R., (2001). A historical overview of the effects of new mass media introduction on magazine             publishing during the 20th Century. Retrieved from: http://firstmonday.org/article/view/885/794.



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