Purnell Model for Cultural Competence

Purnell Model for Cultural Competence

Purnell’s model focuses on offering a basic understanding of different nursing cultures’ attributes, allowing them to provide quality care to patients by adequately viewing their notions towards healthcare and illness. The model is presented using a diagram representing a global context, community level, family unit, and individuals. The model includes several domains such as communication, heritage, family roles, nutrition, death rituals, spirituality, and healthcare practices. The model demonstrates the diversity that nurses should consider when offering healthcare. Each culture has a unique view towards various healthcare concepts such as chronic diseases, mental health, and treatment.  This paper will discuss different ideas of dominant cultural practices based on the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.

Why I do or do not adhere to the dominant cultural practices and beliefs of the ethnic group that I primary identify

I adhere to some dominant cultural practices and beliefs of the ethnic groups I primarily identify with, while in other cases, I fail to comply. The communication concept is one of the dominant practices in my culture. English language I adhere to with its verbal and non-verbal ideas. I maintain eye contact, listen to people talk attentively, and use different tonal variations depending on areas that require varying emphasis (Purnell, 2020). As I communicate with patients, their families, colleagues, and leaders, English language adherence has promoted sufficient sending and reception of messages. The interpersonal skills have improved in my daily interaction with people. In this review, I adhere to the dominant communication practices in English because they enhance my interaction with people, make my work more manageable, and minimizes improper communication.

Spirituality is a dominant practice in my culture, and I adhere to it because it offers meaning to life. It gives a source of strength in difficult times. One of the notable roles of spirituality in my life is the ability to bounce back from a frustrating situation. Believing in a deity who has a higher purpose of life and meaning makes it easier to move past challenging situations. Prayer, gathering believers, and meditating help release emotions and overcome sad problems easily (Purnell, 2020). At work, spirituality allows me to view people as God’s beloved ones, and I treat all people equally. My perception of healthcare practices is improved by the spiritual beliefs I have of achieving a healthy community.

Family roles are dominating concepts of our culture. Women are seen to occupy household spaces and private spheres in delivering family roles. Men settle the family’s financial functions such as a mortgage, bills, and insurance premiums, among others. I don’t adhere to this practice and believe that women should take the family’s lighter roles (Purnell, 2020). This understanding tends to affect people even in the workplace, where women prefer to take up positions less challenging. Even after women are exposed to equal opportunities as men, they tend to comply with gender roles as defined at the family level. Thus, I do not adhere to these beliefs and practices because they limit our abilities and embrace challenging situations even in the workplace.

If you do not wish to self-disclose a specific area from the Organizing Framework, indicate so instead of just not addressing it

Cultural competency is demanding and requires nurses to analyze themselves, their patients, their communities, and colleagues. Personal experiences of cultural beliefs can significantly affect one’s quality of caregiving to patients (Abrishami, 2018). the Purnell Model offers a broad scope where nurses can assess their own culture in the global society. My culture does not promote the use of fertility medication and birth control. The belief system indicates that a deity is in control of births in a community. A barren woman is considered a will from a Creator who saw it right for her to be infertile. The use of birth control is seen as going against the creative purpose of God. Disclosing such an area to the organizing framework could be hard as a nurse. In most cases, nurses will choose to keep quiet and deal with it independently. However, it can be damaging when delivering health care services to people who need help in the area.

During self-assessment papers, one would wish to indicate that they are not comfortable disclosing the area. When using the Purnell Model-based assessment, a question on birth control and fertility medicine may arise. Instead of leaving the question unaddressed, indicate not comfortable to disclose. However, most workplace assessments are kept confidential, and managers cannot share them with others (Debiasi & Selleck, 2017). Failure to disclose should not often happen because the purpose of indicating the assessment question is for the organization to understand the varying perspective of cultural competence in the workplace. Today, cultural competence is part of healthcare culture. Organizations carry assessments to improve the workforce to be competent and sensitive on cultural diversity.

Providing information in the assessment tool gives the organization on the areas that need to be addressed. Training is paramount to ensure cultural competence among nurses. The training opens the workers to understand cultural diversity and the importance of cultural sensitivity when offering care to patients. Purnell Model for Cultural Competence can train nurses to instill cultural knowledge (Abrishami, 2018). Nurses can provide quality care to their patients when their cultural diversity knowledge is high for competence (Purnell, 2020). One can understand why a patient would prefer a woman for a nurse instead of a man without the nurse being offended. Also, some patients will involve their spirituality where their religious leaders will visit them for prayers.  Nurses should be sensitive on the matter by giving their patients room for such cultural practices.


Purnell Model includes varying aspects, and the information is crucial in empowering workers on the need to be culturally competent and sensitive. These concepts provide a holistic global perspective in healthcare and nursing and are useful in education, clinical practice, and social support. Each subgroup should be respected for its unique culture and beliefs. Nursing education should include multicultural diversity teaching in their programs. It promotes co-participation of the patients and nurses when cultural competency is improved. During assessments, healthcare workers should be willing to offer information as the tool requires submitting information for training and decision making in the organization.

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International Law on aliens to the United States

International Law

The United States Code does not allow bringing in and harboring certain aliens in the country. Anyone who prompts an alien to enter or stay in the United States, knowing or ignorant, is a violation of the law. One who is convicted of this law faces punishment of up to ten years in prison. In this case, the defendant argues that the case did not cover extraterritorial jurisdiction because it covers United States territories. The Bowman exception applies in this case because it occurred outside the United States. Campbell’s persecution would be a violation of the international customary law (Bates, 2017). This motion was denies claiming that the United States has the role in protecting itself from fraud wherever it occurs.

Considering that September 11, 2001, was planned overseas, the country should ensure its security. The Bowman Exception can be applied in this case because the code does not cover the extraterritorial jurisdiction. This difference brings up a conflict balancing the efforts for the U.S to protect its nation from criminals outside the country and the rule of not using the U.S law outside its borders. Bernat (2017) argues that the federal government has the power and control to make laws and criminal offenses applicable to immigration and entry to the country.



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Barriers to HIV testing

Barriers to HIV testing

HIV testing barriers include fear of finding out one’s results, what people may say, and wondering what people may say, among others. Confidentiality is one of the concerns that hinder HIV testing. Young people rarely go for testing because they fear being judged by others for being sexually active. Stigmatization exists among sex workers, homosexuals, and drug addicts because they face discrimination, criminalization, and faced with self-doubt putting them away from HIV testing. People go for testing only when they have been exposed, or they suspect to have the infection. This perception is wrong because some people may be infected when they think they are not at risk. Some religious beliefs hinder their members from seeking medical help and insist on praying, magic, and miracles.

These perceived barriers have changed my thinking about HIV testing. I have realized that despite the mobilization, community training, information dissemination, and provision of testing kits across the world, people still face barriers to testing. More sensitization is needed that targets individuals. The barriers are more personal than a community because everyone perceives the barriers differently from others. New initiatives and programs should target individual groups such as sex workers and create a safe environment for them to accepting HIV testing. Young people are another group that programs should focus on eliminating the fear of being judged by other people. Different ways exist on how people get the infection by the HIV. Thus, it will be okay for young people to be confident when going for tests without the fear of being judged.


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Suspect Classification

Suspect Classification

Suspect classification is a group of individuals who have a historical subject to discrimination. Every state or nation that has a suspect classification law tend to be subject to strict scrutiny principles of review before the Supreme Court. Some past discrimination is based on race, sex, religion, and gender. The Fourteenth Amendment Equal Protection Clause prohibits governments in different levels to treat people unequally (Strauss, 2015). However, they rarely treat people equally. Sexual orientation is a pattern that exists on sexual or romantic attraction to persons of opposite sex or gender, same sex, or both sexes (Hutchinson, 2014). The ambiguity and questions rise on establishing criteria of whether a case should be defined in suspect classification.

Discrete and insular minorities are one of the factors that support suspect classification. This idea has faced major criticism and discussion. The questions are raised upon the definition of discrete and insular that tend to be ambiguous. Also, the court does not have a mechanism to define the two words more specific. Also, the prejudice cannot be measured accurately to define such lawful conditions. Also, people will be gaining legal advantages or disadvantages from such a suspect classification. However, a group of the population that fails to acquire the advantage from the popular democracy because of their minority aspects should be accorded these terms. In this case, discrete and insular should be revisited, redefined, and refocused to ensure all people acquire equal treatment and benefit from the government projects in the same way (Strauss, 2015). Without this refocus, a relative number of people will be suffering from discrimination and ill-treatment due to their minority aspect. However, in the case of sex orientation, this factor does not apply. People get attracted to a certain sex sexually out of the decision and not nature. Sex orientation cannot define a group to be a discrete or insular minority (Hutchinson, 2014).

History discrimination is the second factor that faces various critics. Discussions rise and declare whether historical discrimination should be used to define a current suspect. Also, no clear path to define its relevance. Majorly, all races or religion faces rejection or discrimination at one point or another. Moreover, how does the court define that race has faced discrimination in the past? I find this factor supportive on defining suspect classifications on sex orientation. Despite the few criticism on this factor, historical discrimination tends to play a part on a person’s political, economic, and social power. Traditionally, only two groups have been seen to suffer from historical prejudice (Strauss, 2015). The African-American due to the slavery that pre-existed and women who have suffered from cultural discrimination. In this regard, sex orientation does not meet the historical aspect of discrimination. According to Hutchinson (2014), opposite sex attraction has been supported all through. The homosexuality or heterosexuality has no historical discrimination. They fail to meet the moral principles of the society.

Political powerlessness can be elaborated as a group’s inability to depend on the legislative process to secure its interest. This factor tends to support the earlier criteria in this discussion. Organizations and government agencies use political power to define whether a group or a person have faced historical discrimination in the past or whether a group is discrete and insular. In this view, the courts should protect groups and individuals from political biases. However, little guidance is given by the Supreme Court on how to define political powerlessness. In this case, the court should invest in defining such clauses to ensure people suffering from due to political powerlessness have been helped (Strauss, 2015). For example, the ability to vote, and a pure number of a group are the common measures of political powerlessness. However, sex orientation does not inhibit one from vying or voting in the U.S (Hutchinson, 2014). Thus, it cannot be included as a suspect classification.


Immutability faces criticism on its relevance to defining a suspect. Also, on how the term should be defined in specify. Courts have failed to provide a clear definition of immutability. Initially, the court has defined the term as something biological that a person is born bearing. This definition has raised the question in the state and municipal courts. Some traits such as homosexuality are blurry on whether it is a biological course or a behavioral fact. Also, the current medical advancement has changed the situation. Some biological crisis can be rectified by a medical procedure. Some theories argue that immutability should be defined on the basis of social traits (Strauss, 2015). However, being born as female or male is a biological fact, but the discrimination actions are caused by social construction (Hutchinson, 2014). However, sex orientation is not biological nor social but a behavioral aspect. Thus, it cannot be referred as a suspect classification.

Relevancy is phrased on whether a group’s defining characteristic has a relation to a person’s participating in the society. If a person characteristic does not affect their abilities, the court does not use it to define the suspect. This factor is important in realizing whether a legal process of action is made to oppress or to impress a certain group of people. If a certain characteristic is irrelevant to legislation, the court does dismiss it in the question of the suspect. However, sexual orientation should not be considered a suspect classification because it has no relation to a certain inability or discrimination (Strauss, 2015). Homosexuals and heterosexual face the punishment of being against the societal values and morals and not discrimination (Hutchinson, 2014).





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IBM Watson Analytics

The Use Cases of IBM Watson Analytics Summary

IBM Watson Analytics is located in the United States. Watson Analytics is a smart data analysis and visualization service that can be used to discover patterns and meaning in data. According to the Video, Watson helps to make good business decisions. Watson helps to improve different fields such as security, education, transport, and health. Watson is an AI, cognitive and transformative industry. Watson has provided people with employment through their different clients. The health system has been impacted by Watson innovations where patients acquire formal healthcare assistance online. Watson interacts with a wide range of consumers in helping them make better decisions, answering questions, shopping, insurance, weather, government services, government plans, education choices, learning program for teachers, and many others.

The IBM Watson envisions the world with the use of a human resource and a machine. In Watson, data is the most fundamental thing to everyone and all businesses. Watson is made up of partnership and not an individual enterprise to be embedded in the various areas. Watson is focused on the intellectual cloud and the whole ecosystem health. Financial services are part of the Watson and have a branch company that has invested in financial risks and management skills. The world with Watson comprises of cognitive abilities that bring high competitive advantages in companies. Moreover, Watson helps companies to scale in expertise by offering training programs to enhance performance. Moreover, it motivates creativity in cooking, designing, building, farming and learning in class. Operations in the companies are being impacted by Watson in areas such as fleet and prediction management. Discovery and research are being influenced by Watson cognitive abilities in areas such as medicine.

In future transportation, vehicles will be influenced by technology to help human mobility. The electrification in the car has grown from one innovation to another. The innovation in the vehicles has become affordable because the government has supported the ideas. Moreover, the envisioned autonomous vehicle helps people to do various things has they are being driven from point A to point B. The innovation in the vehicles has benefit people’s lives by creating more time to perform other duties while driving. The General Motors have been working to innovate vehicles that present freedom. The motorist companies solve the problem in the societies caused by motor vehicles such as air pollution and accidents. The car innovation will be a help to saving time by having customization of different application such as event reminders and activity alarms.

In education, Watson recognizes that science and technology are required in every career. The US Secretary of Education illustrates that IBM has been useful in the progress of education. The IBM helps students to connect what they are doing today with their future career. The innovations and inclusion of IBM in the schools have attracted business to collaborate with schools to motivate them in understanding the actual world. IBM mentors have been included in schools to help students define their future careers. Watson helps to better- match the online teaching materials that matches the needs of the students. Technology increases teachers’ knowledge on methods of teachings. For example, in cases of English learner students that might be challenging to teachers. The technology will create equal opportunity for every child.

Watson has been embedded in the healthcare industry. Dr. Petersburg illustrates the several uses of IBM Watson in healthcare industry especially in pharmaceutical. Generic Pharmaceutical is a hybrid company that offers the best medicine production. The healthcare industry has two pressures, which includes the finances and reaching the patients. The healthcare should be convenient, affordable, transparent, and adjusted to patients’ needs. The technology will be effective in providing virtual services to patients. The technology will bridge the gap between different industries that can work together in enabling quality healthcare. Technology creates several opportunities and challenges. However, IBM Watson has collaborated with the pharmaceutical companies to create solutions to challenges brought by other Internet-based information on health. The IBM Watson will provide official and relevant information that patients need. It will eliminate contradictions from the diverse information found on the internet where Watson will offer relevance in grouping the data accordingly.

The technology has helped the pharmaceutical companies to collect data and turn it into assets. The IBM Watson contributes to reaching more people than before. Technology contributes to providing information to patients on how to manage chronic diseases such as Asthma by the collaborating with Watson where they help to classify data to meet customer needs. Watson helps to present the large data pertaining all aspects of chronic illness that the company will leverage in aiding patients to manage their conditions. This technology will save time, money, and increase patient’s ability to live productively.

In cancer treatment, IBM Watson analytics has helped in managing patients’ data. IBM Watson helps cancer treatment centers to understand the mutation of cells better by bringing diverse researches together. It aids in understand the formation and treatment of cancer from the huge data. Watson helps the cancer research center to manage individual patients’ data that helps in observing their progress. Watson has helped the center to find quick results from diagnosis procedures of the patients from the systematic recorded data. IBM Watson helps doctors to analyze data and make appropriate decisions in therapy administration efficiently.


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Class Discussions

Class Discussions

The class discussions are offered with various expectations. The class discussions are relevant to the course being taught in class. The student is expected to respond to the initial questions that are being asked. The answer to the question should be a discussion based that expresses objective ideas. The discussion should be written clearly with the guidance of the instructions offered. The thoughts in the discussion should be well outlined and arranged to offer the intended meaning. The discussion expectations are to assess the student’s ability to further his or her understanding of the course or to reflect on the class discussions. The students usually respond to each other’s responses to further the discussion. Finally, the discussion should be done in the due time

The written assignment tend to vary from projects to individuals. The assignments expectations usually assess the entire course understanding from the students. Usually, the assignment examines the application abilities the student has acquired during the entire course learning. It entails a summary of what one has learned in the module. The assignment expects a student to do the work alone and not in a group. The deadline is set at the end of the course to ensure that the student captures the entire module.

I am taking the class because I intend to work in a community service centers. Also, I want to expand my knowledge on relating with people more effectively. I need to gain the understanding of how to offer people help in their afflictions and challenges. Also, the course will be useful when I approach people when seeking support or providing them any service. Moreover, human service will strengthen my attributes in my social life sphere.

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Writing a Nursing Paper

Writing a Nursing Paper

The purpose of this section is to give tips on how to go about writing a nursing paper.

It’s important for Nursing students to understand that they need to write professionally and not like they’re writing a personal diary. They should also think about their audience and choose the right journal for their paper.

If you’re writing a research paper, you should know that there are different types of journals that cater to different academic disciplines. Some journals will specialize in a particular field such as psychology or physics while others might focus on a specific region such as Africa or Asia. The first step is to decide what your topic is and the type of audience you want to reach.

Scientific journals are a type of journal that publishes scientific papers. They can be online or in print. When it comes to nurses, there are many different types of journals they can consider using for their research papers.

What is a nursing research paper?

A nursing research paper is a type of academic paper that is used to describe the findings of a study conducted by nurses. Essentially, it is a summary of the research process including the conclusions reached.

Many nursing researchers use the nursing process, which includes data collection, critical analysis, hypothesis formulation and testing, and data interpretation to produce their papers.

A nursing research paper is always bound by ethical requirements in addition to any academic requirements. The ethical requirements are usually tied to issues such as confidentiality and anonymity.

Research Summary Structure and Organization

  • Headlines serve as a window into the content and should capture the curiosity of your target audience. Generally, questions get people to open your email. A good headline can be hard to come up with at first. Instead, create it once you’re done with writing, you’ll have plenty of ideas to use

  • What is this research about? (3-5 sentences) – introduce your research and its primary objective. Consider this part as an announcement of some event, you need to provide necessary details to ensure audience understands everything and wants to learn more. Define important terms from the research paper, especially if they aren’t common knowledge. And don’t forget to include the research question

  • Methods (5-10 sentences) – research summary (and original file) aren’t just about findings that are of huge interest for the topic, methods also matter. Once you’ve explained the purpose of the research, move on to describe the methodology and elaborate how researchers collected data and include examples of questions that were asked. The section should also include the number of people who completed questionnaires and surveys, the total number of participants in larger studies both eligible ones and those who met the criteria for further research, etc. Ideally, you should never under any circumstances skip the sample size because it suggests how generalizable the findings are

  • Findings (5-10 sentences) – this section is unavoidable. After researchers or scientists implemented their methods, what did they discover? Describe key findings from the study itself. Don’t waste your time including every finding from a specific study, just the key points. This saves time and ensures the summary is written in a concise manner. When describing findings, try to be specific. Always use exact information about a number of people who reported/experienced/did something. Use bulleted lists for better organization

  • How can you use the research? (3-7 sentences) – describe how findings from the research can be used by practitioners in different fields e.g. education, medicine, or anything else relevant to the topic. Identify who would be interested in the results of the study

  • Conclusion (3-4 sentences) – this section tells a reader what he/she needs to know about the research. Basically, this is a short overview of the summary that compiles key points of the study and its finding into a single section. It can be practical to include this section into a highlighted box on the top right-hand side of the first page

  • Original research file – a citation and link to the original file

  • About researchers – 1-2 sentences short info about each researcher who participated in the study

  • References – always cite sources you use while writing, particularly when the paper has a tremendous importance such as research summary

  • Keywords – don’t forget to add them if you’re uploading the summary to an online database

  • About summary – a short section where you write a few sentences about the team who compiled the summary

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Writing a good academic paper

Writing a good academic paper

This article will help you with the basics of making a high-quality academic paper that gets good grades.

This article includes some tips for you to create a high-quality academic paper. It is divided into three sections: “Getting Started”, “Structuring Your Paper” and “Writing Your Paper”. The first section will help you plan ahead of time, the second one will show you how to organize your thoughts into a clear structure, and the third one will provide you with guidelines for how to write your paper

There are many aspects to keep in mind when writing an essay, but these three are key: having correct sentence structure, using good grammar, and citing sources correctly. The first step is to gather the information you need to start your paper about your topic. This can be done by doing research or by interviewing someone who has knowledge on the subject. Once you know what you will be writing about, it is time to prepare the outline of your paper.

After writing out an outline for your paper, it’s time to work on completing the sentences in each paragraph of your essay. One way to do this is by starting with a sentence that summarizes what you want to say in that paragraph. Every student wants to get good grades in their courses. One of the ways they can achieve this is by writing good academic papers.

Students are always looking for ways to improve their grades. Writing academic papers is a skill that can be learned. Writing well takes time and experience, but with the help of an academic writing service, students can have someone write their paper for them. With this service, they get ideas on how to write the paper, they get feedback during the process, and their paper is written by professional writers.

Academic papers are essays that should be academically sound and well-written. The paper should follow the style guide of the institution, which can include correct grammar, sentence structure, and referencing methods. It is important to note that the formatting of an academic paper differs from one institution to another.

The best institutions of higher education usually have strict guidelines for the work of their students. This means that they must follow these guidelines to attain good grades and high performance levels in their studies.

Students must adhere to a set of guidelines when completing a project or assignment. These guidelines are usually regulated by the institute and can be anything from a set word count, to a strict guideline on what is allowed in the work.


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Evaluating leadership Ethics

Part 1

Ethics can be defined as a system of moral principles that influences how people make decisions on what is right or wrong. Ethics helps to guide through different dilemmas, such as making moral decisions or how to live a good life. Philosophers attach different definitions of ethic that are divided into three theories that include metaethics, normative, and applied ethics. Metaethics deals refer to ethics as moral judgment and analyze the origins and meaning of ethical principles. Normative ethics involves the content of good reviews and the criteria to define what is right or wrong (Myers Jr, 2015). Applied ethics includes discussion on a controversial topic, animal rights, and capital punishment.

Ethical leaders are different from just leaders. This kind of leaders focuses on what is right and wrong. Leaders without ethics follows rules and guidelines without critical thinking. However, ethical leaders possess some difference where they use moral values to make decisions and just following the existing guidelines. The ability to make change for ethical leaders is based on the moral values that checks the greater good of the organization. Leadership can be described as the ability to carry the vision for others and having an impression for them. Leadership inspires others to make better decisions at their levels and follow the laid-out vision. An ethical leader has good communication skills to influence the team in a positive way according to his or her leadership style.

Ethical educational leaders help an organization to grow and overcome daily challenges within an organization. Ethical leaders foster trust among employees and leaders in a visionary perspective that defines the boundaries of right and wrong. Ethical leaders conduct themselves and make decisions aligned with organizational ethics. Ethical leaders’ think for the good of others in the organization. Ethical educational leaders consider the good of the teachers, students, parents, and other partners in their decision-making process. The traits of ethical leaders create a role model for others to follow by following the codes of conducts in the organization. This kind of leaders understands the act of service and fosters goodwill in an organization (NORIEGA & DREW, 2013). Also, such leaders hold sufficient power that supports others and not misusing people in their authority. Ethical educational leaders know how to deal with people with an understanding of what is the right thing and making quality decisions.

An ethical leader creates an environment based on ethics and morality. He or she demands ethical behaviours from different people in the organization. All activities performed in the school should comply with given guidelines on ethics. Codes of ethics are core to school operations. His relationship with subordinate leaders is based on mutual respect and self-discipline. Trust is critical for such leaders built on honesty and ethical actions. Fairness and equity are practised in all facets of the organization (NORIEGA & DREW, 2013). These conducts motivate teachers and students to perform better in their areas.

Ethical educational leaders should have behaviours that reflect their understanding of ethics and morality. The actions done by ethical leaders depict their understanding of what is right and wrong. These kinds of leaders have critical thinking abilities that allow them to make decisions in the hardest cases. Also, the ability to have moral reasoning is improved to ensure all stakeholders in the organization benefit from the problem. Every leader should be comfortable explaining his decisions and the values that drive his actions. Understanding the diversity of value inclines the leader to create standard codes of ethics to guide behaviours in the organization (NORIEGA & DREW, 2013). A leader should know his obligation to achieve a better place in leadership and assess his responses are alignment to his goals.

An ethical leader can think deeply concerning moral questions. When confronted by a right versus right conflict of responsibilities, ethical leaders should be ready to fail in some ways as they miss in others. Each ethical leader understands that no single decision is right in this world. Every decision will have people affected by its effects. Having a guideline to make the ethical choice is essential for a leader to avoid taking or those that fail to benefit the organization. The public interest that overpowers self is crucial for a moral leader. He or she thinks for the good of others over his own needs. Educational leaders understand the importance of different stakeholder to improve their reputation. Offering others a chance to participate in decision making provides a room to make ethical actions (NORIEGA & DREW, 2013). An educational leader recognizes the talents of both teachers and students to offer them opportunities to excel in their giftings.

Part 2

The changes made through a school tax referendum requires an ethical decision-making plan to ensure minimal damage and conserve the rights of the people. The four questions framework developed by Badaracco in 1992 will guide my decision in this scenario. The four questions help to assess different ways of resolving right-versus-right dilemmas. As a leader of a district school, I have four proposals that seem right, and I should choose one.

Which course of action will do the best and the least harm?

This first question analyzes the consequences or results of the proposal. As a leader, I should choose the one that caters for the greatest need of the stakeholders. In this case, I would go with the second proposal that eliminates transportation services. This proposal will only affect the driver who will lose his job and the students who have been using the busing services. However, other cheap means of transportation exist, and students can resolve to those means. The other three proposals seem to affect a wide array of people, including their families. For example, reducing the number of teachers in the school will cost them a livelihood leading to financial stress even to their children.

Which alternative best serves other’s rights, including shareholders’ rights?

This second question focuses on individual rights, where Budaracco (1992) considers individual rights to life, liberty, and their seeking for happiness. Other reasons include respect, safety, and fairness. Listing the rights of each stakeholder can be difficult. In this scenario, we focus on teachers, students, parents, and school partners. The first proposal seems to take away the rights of some teachers and students where teachers are eliminated, and students are taught in large classes. The second option takes some liberties from the driver and the students. However, transportation services are not demanded by the law. The third option requires parents to pay additional fees for additional activities such as games. Thus, the choice is not fair to the parents and to the students whose parents cannot afford the extra costs. The fourth option removes programs that benefit gifted students since the law does not require them. However, the talented students will suffer, and their freedom to participate in the programs will be eliminated. Therefore, none of these options serves other’s rights, but they differ in magnitude. The second options does not affect people’s rights in a huge way compared to others.

What plan can I live with, which is consistent with fundamental values and commitments?

This question assesses the conscience and value. The leader has to make a choice that he or she will have a free conscience, protect the reputation of the school, and consider the long-term consequences. Accordingly, the second proposal for a change in the school will not leave a negative reputation of the school, the values of the people will be reserved, and long-term consequences are not significant. The second option will allow students to use their means of transportation. This proposal will have minimal impact on the future of the school or students (Christensen & Boneck, 2010). The rest of the options seems to affect people’s lives and impact their livelihood for the long-term.

Which course of action is feasible in the world as it is?

This question assesses the actions that are better taken to preserve the survival of the organization. The limited financial access is restricted and calls for an immediate response, as indicated in the four proposals. The most available work will support the changes in financial access and should preserve the organization. The second option is feasible in reducing the expenses in the district budget and does not distort much of the school program and activities (Christensen & Boneck, 2010). Therefore, the feasible option is eliminating the transportation services from the school.

The four questions, as guided by Budaracco, are used consistently and dependently to promote an ethical decision. Without one of the question considerations, a leader can make a skewed decision that serves a few interests and fails to consider the entire organization and its stakeholders. In this regard, the assessment shows that the second option is the best action for an ethical leader in making. The conclusion has been achieved through a balanced act of solving an ethical dilemma of the existing issue (Christensen & Boneck, 2010). The ethical ideal option to reduce expenditure for the upcoming school year is eliminating transportation services for the high school.


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Cybersecurity Risks

Introduction: Cybersecurity Risks

Today, the growth of the internet and increased technology use has brought an increase in cybersecurity risks. The advancement in technology has given malicious actors a chance to undertake different criminal activities in cyberspace. Various organizations and individuals are conducting the effort to secure cyberspace. Cyber-attacks are an ongoing problem in the current world of technology. Initiatives to curb this challenge are growing and expanding where individuals and corporates are investing in achieving secure cyberspace. Cybersecurity should be a concern of everyone, not just the IT department in an organization. The realities of cybersecurity risks will be analyzed in this paper and how legal, ethics, and compliance professionals can overcome the challenge of cyber insecurity in their organization.

Current realities of cybersecurity

Sophisticated attackers using advanced technology are increasing in the webspace. Businesses and consumers are aware of the need for cybersecurity today. The understanding of why they need for cybersecurity in needed has spread across every value chain. Unlike five years ago, where attackers were thought to be focused and elaborate, the attacks are broad with new and intelligent forms of malware. Increased types of malware and their complexity are significant threats to businesses of all sizes. The malware self-propagates are making it hard to detect them using the essential detection tools (Samtani, Chinn, Larson, & Chen, 2016). The hackers can use new techniques to hide the malware or the threat in an encrypted method. Malware can look like regular traffic because cyber attackers can control them and mimic daily traffic. Therefore, the traditional malware detectors and security tools are no longer viable (Nurse, Radanliev, Creese & De Roure, 2018). The attacker is now enrolled in large groups, with training and resources at their disposal. In this regard, cybersecurity is fundamental in business operations using the updated tools, and hiring experts in cybersecurity might help in solving the problem.

Different ways of monetizing cybercrime exist today than before. Hackers are not stealing data and selling it only. Attackers are destroying systems and attaining information that can devastate businesses in starting fake news that messes with the company’s reputation. Malicious competitors may use cyber attackers to destroy a company’s business systems, such as bringing down the supply chain systems. Cybercriminals have an extensive value in the technology space and take pride in their financial growth as hackers have taken their jobs seriously today, unlike five years ago. Organizations should view the need for cybersecurity in the same seriousness by investing in the best tools. Five years ago, cybercrime used viruses and disabled computers to carry out their attack (Moraes, 2019). Today, the high speed in technology, increased techniques, and the profit in cybercrime, organizations, are at a higher risk of attacks.

Organizations and individuals have widely accepted the realities of cyber-attacks. The damaging that the cyber insecurities bring on businesses cannot be ignored. Increased investment in proper security tools that can predict and respond to threats effectively is ongoing in companies. Cybersecurity systems are expensive to purchase, install, and manage in business. Small businesses tend to outsource services from IT service providers who are well versant with the problems. With the right tools and support, an organization will maintain an effective response to any arising risk. Good customer experience requires increased cybersecurity for online purchases of products (Samtani et al., 2016). Therefore, every business should place a sound security system that will retain its customers and promote smooth operation.

The skill gap still exists because of the new and problematic development of cyber-attacks. The demand for secure cyberspace has gone up very fast, leaving the IT experts with a knowledge gap. The workload to respond to the attacks and keeping businesses free from threats is a difficult task. Higher security experts are needed in businesses. Too much time is taken by the companies in the effort to remedy the damage caused by the attacks due to the limited knowledge or skills in executing the appropriate preventive measures (Moraes, 2019). Lack of security experts is a persisting reality in business today. Continuous training and adapting to the changes in cybersecurity is needed in all levels of companies.

Legal, ethics and compliance professionals

In the past, legal, ethics, and compliance professionals were not included in the cybersecurity space. In most organizations, these professionals were left behind when discussing matters of cyber securities in the organizations. Organization’s leaders got concerned after a report in 2014 illustrated that 75% of the legal, ethical, and compliance officers are left behind on cybersecurity matters. These professionals are vital in building secure cyberspace in organizations. These professionals can overcome the existing barriers to secure their organizations (Asbury, McClelland, Torgerson, Vincent, & Boling, 2018). The role that these professional play in ensuring their organizations are cyber secure are numerous and cannot be overlooked.

Legal professionals have the universal laws to protect and carry reasonable measures in safeguarding data in their organization. Significant barriers to achieving cybersecurity in an organization can be made by legal professionals’ ability to enact contracts and regulatory roles in protecting confidential data. Companies are struggling to meet the dynamic laws, regulations, privacy standards, and new liabilities related to a data breach (Asbury et al., 2018). Lawyers and other legal professionals engage in continuous training and learning to become conversant with the new laws, regulations, and policies created to fit the advancing technological needs.

Centralized discovery center and data storage are crucial for legal professionals in the effort to break barriers and make their organizations secure. The concern arises when an organization distributes ESI to different vendors and law firms. The risk of a data breach can be seen in such activities. As a result, a centralized data system and management allows a single platform that controls the organization’s data. The information shared can be coded correctly and protected by the right confidential provisions. The data can be encrypted for single use to avoid miscoding for other litigation matters (Asbury et al., 2018). A centralized system keeps the information secure by allowing the organization’s team to manage the access and use of sensitive data across different law firms and vendors. This technique helps to solve the barriers of making an organization cyber-secure.

Moving to the cloud is crucial for legal professionals because it increases security benefits for the organization. Optimizing information and managing data are some of the benefits of adopting a cloud for judicial officers. Cloud limits the process of importing and exporting data from one system to another. The data can move seamlessly without a third party’s intervention. Cloud allows different activities such as data collection, processing, case assessment, review, and production to be conducted in the cloud (Asbury et al., 2018). The limited transferring of information from one vendor to another can be risky for data breaching.

Security audit in the organization is crucial in improving cybersecurity. Businesses are adopting security protocols that require to be audited often to mitigate any security risks. Having a data protection contract for employees and other stakeholders is crucial when improving cybersecurity in a corporate. The agreement allows the organization to place the burden of cybersecurity upon every individual affiliated with the business. Security assessment tools are adopted in a company to ensure protocols adherence by employees and associates. The audit allows identifying the various loopholes existing in the company needing to be resolved (Talesh, 2018). Also, it raises insights for decision making concerning cybersecurity, such as training employees and investing in new security tools.

Legal professionals are using document protection and not only device encryption. The security at the documents level controls the access of e-documents and promotes a secure sharing of information within the organization. This process mitigates insider threats that cyber attackers use in most cases. Document encryption enables quick detection and response to insider threats (Talesh, 2018). Any technique gives quick alerts to any unauthorized user trying to access the documents.

Ethics professionals have a role in educating employees in different departments dealing with data on confidentiality, consumer ethics, and incident responses. Most IT professionals have the skills to perform their tasks but lack the ethical understanding that can attack the company’s litigation problems. Confidentiality is crucial for each employee in an organization. When dealing with sensitive matters, professionals should not just open or share information because they can access it from the system. Employees who bring their devices to work should be given an in-depth training of the confidentiality needed and the risk they have towards their data when connecting to the network (Talesh, 2018). Also, an organization should understand its role in protecting its customers from cyber attack issues. More so, alerting the consumers of a potential breach is an ethical issue to be considered. Ethical professionals play a huge role in enlightening the organization on its roles and responsibilities in achieving an ethical operation when considering cybersecurity.

Communication between clients, employees, and partners should be controlled using ethical standards. Personal information regarding employees should be kept safe to promote confidentiality, including medical information, health insurance, and payrolls should be protected using advanced security tools. Ethics professionals should help in drafting an ethics code that governs issues concerning cybersecurity and data protection. Trust among employees should be maintained to avoid leaking information to hackers. Some ethical issues can cost the company’s reputation and attract severe lawsuits. Client safety and well-being should be assured using the right ethical considerations on the cyberspace. Cyberethics supports transparency when a risk is detected on cybersecurity. Customers or clients should be informed about data breaches as early as possible to create transparency on the tendency of their sensitive information to be stolen (Talesh, 2018). Cyberethics should be distinguished from other regulations to mark emphasis. Since cyber ethics have not been established uniformly, organizations require skilled professionals to aid them in creating necessary policies to instill them on employees.

Compliance is crucial in every organization because it ensures the IT department is following all the laws, standards, and regulations concerning cybersecurity. Without an agreement, the organization may think they have met all requirements, not until an audit reveals some vulnerabilities that can be used by attackers. Also, lack of compliance can lead to huge penalties and lawsuits that an organization can avoid. Compliance helps to create a cybersecurity culture where every individual is aware of the need to follow protocols. This approach ensures that guidelines are followed to the letter, and standards are upheld to minimize the likelihood of cyber insecurity. Common barriers to a cyber-secure organization can be clicking phishing emails and opening hackers’ documents. The implemented framework in the organization should be industry-specific to ensure feasibility and ensure that the right standards of cybersecurity are appropriate. Frequent evaluation should be done to ensure compliance and proper exercise of the guidelines (Morrow, 2018). Continuous improvement is another approach to ensure all aspects of cybersecurity standards are met in the company. Growth raises the standards making it hard for hackers to have a successful attack.


Cybersecurity risk is high in today’s life. Corporates and small businesses are investing in high technology security tools to protect their operations, reputation, clients, and marketing. The effects of cyber attacks are enormous and cannot be ignored. The complex nature of tools used by the attackers in the current age makes it hard to respond to the cyber-attacks. Proper monitoring allows an organization to prepare to mitigate the risk or prevent it before it happens. Legal, ethical, and compliance professionals have been influential in overcoming the everyday challenges of achieving a cyber-secure space.


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